Sunday, August 23, 2020

Cause and Consequences of urbanization in Scotland Essay

This paper will investigate important reason and results of urbanization in Scotland from 1700-1860. A word reference characterized term would be â€Å"the social procedure whereby urban communities develop and social orders become more urban.†(1. 30/08/2005). Scotland experienced enormous political and practical changes from the 1700’s onwards. The nation went from being a provincial, agrarian culture with an expected populace of 1.2 million of every 1755, to being urbanized, with the populace ascending to over 2.6 million in 1841(Lenman, p281, 2001). This figure is the thing that makes the urbanization of Scotland so intriguing. What were the primary factors that made the populace develop so quickly? The development of populace over such a brief period and the social changes that happened with this. The incomparable Agrarian and Industrial upsets had a significant part’s to play in the urbanization of Scotland and this exposition will give some illumination on why it was so significantly recognizable in Scotland. Another point that will be examined is the outcomes of urbanization, how the nation at last turned into a cutting edge promoted nation from its rustic beginnings. Previously and up until 1750, Scotland was a lot of a feudalistic nation. Masters leased inhabitants enough land for them to create food to endure. Consequently, the occupant would need to work the Lord’s land just as his own. The Landlord would receive the rewards, the occupant would endure, and as most of the individuals relied upon the land as their enthusiastic hood, it was a way to endurance. As Devine states,_† In 1750 just a single Scot in eight lived in a town (populace of 4000 or over) and there was just four towns with more than 10000 inhabitants†_ (Devine, 1999, p125). This shows the hugeness of Scots who were living in provincial networks, with the fundamental work being in horticulture, weaving and angling. The progressions to agribusiness started with those known as the improvers, whose primary standpoint was to modernize the manner in which the land was developed. As the number of inhabitants in the nation started to quicken rapidly, the improvers were hoping to create mass food rather than the old method of development. During the period between 1790-1840 new cultivating hardware was presented and the land that was officially cultivatedâ using the â€Å"infield-outfield and floor covering and wrinkle method† was improved by encasing the land into fields making it increasingly beneficial for crops and for domesticated animals Crop pivots were likewise presented which was utilizing the land consistently. The presentation of single inhabitant cultivating instead of ferm-touns implied the start of the clearances, just as farming devices getting progressively proficient. The presentation of sifting machines decreased physical work and â€Å"the Small’s furrow †a two pony furrow supplanted the Scot’s furrow which required a group of bulls and horses† (Devine, 1998, p138). These new thoughts created more food yet they additionally left individuals destitute and jobless, as there was less work required, which left individuals no decision however to proceed onward into the towns and urban areas where industry had started making employments. The development of the towns and urban areas were unpredictably connected with the agrarian upset as the mass populace depended on the land for the food it created. The other primary concern that Devine makes is that as the farming business sector began to quicken, the requirement for trade focuses that gave lawful, business and budgetary offices for the provincial networks turned out to be progressively conspicuous, so a few towns including Perth, Ayr and Dumfries turned into the supplier of these administrations. This again added to development of towns, as individuals were required to work and live in the towns to encourage these positions (Devine 1998, p32) Hence, we can suspect that three significant changes happened simultaneously and they contributed towards urbanization in Scotland: The agrarian upset alongside the populace development, and the extension of the assembling business. As T.M Devine States, _Urbanisation couldn't have occurred without a significant increment in food creation to support the necessities of the individuals who didn't develop their own food supplies. Simultaneously, agrarian profitability needed to improve so as to discharge a developing extent of the populace for non-farming assignments in towns and cities._ (Devine, 1998, p32) Alongside propositions changes the assembling business started to develop quickly. Scotland was a significant player in the transoceanic exchanging industry and because of its geological position, it was blasting in the tobacco exchange and it would proceed to succeed in cotton and cloth as well. Scotland’s Geographical situation as of now was significant as it is arranged between the Atlantic and Europe, which implied exchanging from one to the next, was fruitful. The two significant factor’s of the Industrial Revolution were, the material business and the efficiency of the steam motor, which was changed by James Watt in 1769 (Watt James on the web, 2005). Materials processing plants and coalmines could create more products and they didn't should be close to a water source so as to run. Because of this, the bigger towns and urban communities started to develop quickly. _Greenock in 1700 had a populace of 2000 and by 1831 it had rose to 27500._ _Glasgow went from 31700 to 147000._ _Paisley went from 6800 to 47000._ _Kilmarnock went from 4400 to 12700_ _Falkirk went from 3900 to 11500. All inside the timespan from 1740-1850 (Devine 1998, p35)_ The populace development over the brief time frame is the most huge point here as this is the thing that made urbanization in Scotland extraordinary. There are a wide range of variables that influenced the populace development however some are more noteworthy than others are. Irish Immigration was extremely noticeable and the relocation of individuals from the rustic regions had a significant effect. For example:_† most of the vagrants were youthful grown-ups progressively moved in the eligible and childbearing age bunches than were the local occupants. High Migration on account of its age piece was in this way liable to fuel characteristic increment in the urban areas_†.(Devine 1998,p41) simultaneously theâ highlanders were leaving the land either through power as the lord’s applied the new development strategies to the land or through decision. The dominant part decided to move to America; this didn't influence the populace development the same number of Irish v agrants were coming to Scotland searching for work in the blasting ventures. â€Å"_Urbanisation implied more employments, a more extensive assorted variety of social contacts and vastly more prominent shading and fervor in the lives of the masses_† (Devine 1998 p43) Death rates show their enormous effect on populace development as well. It has been proposed that lower demise rates, through characteristic invulnerability to malady profoundly added to urbanization, as in the mid 1800’s the passing rate had tumbled to 25 for each 1000. This proposes regular resistance and significant levels of joblessness quickened the populace development (Devine, 1998, p48). The impact of industrialisation was monetarily useful for the nation, however with it came destitution. Most of the common laborers lived in stuffed lodging territories known as ghettos with no sanitation, and were overflowing with infection. As Devine contends, during times of mechanical downturn when work had drooped, there were additionally times of infection plague. These started in 1817-1820(Typhoid), 1826-27(Typhoid) and in 1830-1832, a cholera pestilence that cleared out 10000 individuals. Times of downturn run equal, the first being 1816-1818, 1825 and afterward 1836 (Devine, 1999, p168). In 1839, Death rates increased to 29 for each 1000. Individuals had to live in detestable day to day environments with gigantic sanitations issues, the towns and urban communities couldn't adapt to the urban development and illness was the result. Packed, sub-separated lodging was a hazardous issue in all the significant Towns and Cities, particularly in Glasgow. _†I didn't accept unti l I visited Glasgow, that so huge a measure of foulness, wrongdoing, wretchedness and sickness existed in one spot in any one cultivated country† (_Butt J, 1987 p41-42). Individuals were modified to living in smudged dim, sodden disgusting conditions among illness. As the times of downturn were keep thousands separate from work in a condition of neediness, the poor law change act was passed in 1845, which supplanted the old poor alleviation laws of the areas taking mindfully for theâ poor. The new law permitted a case to be made under oversight of a leading body of inspectors, it came as indoor alleviation, which would be admission to a poorhouse if subject had lost the capacity to work, and outside help, which was for transient sickness, and this may have been as installment or medication. It could be contended that the modern unrest was the introduction of the average workers and private enterprise in this nation. The individuals who possessed the industrial facilities and docks made an incredible benefit and a white collar class way of life was embraced. This could be supposed to be the division of the classes, with the assistance of the modern u nrest, individuals built up a â€Å"working† class or â€Å"middle† class mentality, All in all, the proof calls attention to that few central point happened that quickened the urban development of the country. The Agrarian unrest began the mass moving and the mechanical transformation gave the work power with the end goal for private enterprise to advance. The results of urbanization were overpowering, yes the economy thrived, however at what cost to the common laborers individuals, demise, ailment and hopelessness.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Balancing On-line College Studies, Work, and Personal Relationships

Adjusting On-line College Studies, Work, and Personal Relationships On-line school contemplates deliver different difficulties for an understudy as the idea of time may effortlessly be ignored or overlooked alongside issues in regards to interruptions and the feeling of essence (â€Å"Online Study Techniques†). In this sense, if an understudy likewise thinks about problems that need to be addressed, for example, those that come from work, family, and companions, at that point the trouble of effectively finishing on-line school examines become even worse.However, the nearness of such issues, challenges, and difficulties doesn't imply that each understudy experiencing on-line school contemplates has a bunch of reasons so as not to exceed expectations in their instructive interest. Indeed, given the correct outlook and the correct methodology in dynamic, all things considered, an understudy will have the option to ideally achieve each errand in their on-line examines while as yet having the option to perform at work and keep up relations with family and friends.Personally, I consolidate ideas of time the board and compelling prioritization so as to accomplish proficient dynamic. As referenced, in dynamic, I use powerful prioritization so as to think of the most ideal alternatives for a given circumstance. In this sense, I develop a chain of command of contemplations and occasions which may come up and how I ought to see every single circumstance given if such circumstances cover. Moreover, I additionally build up a feeling of progressive system comparable to contemplates, work, companions, and family.Although it might appear that such a methodology is by all accounts very viable and one may raise inquiries with respect to why despite the fact that individuals will in general have a comparative approach yet fizzle at dynamic. The appropriate response is very straightforward, the explanation behind the failure to use prioritization as a device for directing d ynamic isn't carefully followed and such people pick to pick the simpler or progressively pleasurable decisions as opposed to choosing the more significant tasks.In my case however, I organize and conclude as per which decision would bring the best impacts. To clarify upon the potential utilization of powerful prioritization as far as dynamic, it is just legitimate to talk about using explicit models. In this sense, a genuine model comes through achieving extra assignments at work which fundamentally converts into a greater payout while likewise thinking about the advancement through on-line studies and coursework.Considering that I as of now have a steady measure of assets and have a decent measure of sparing, at that point working for extra hours despite the fact that extra compensation is given would not have been an effective decision since actually my assets are now in overabundance. Then again, corresponding to the on-line examines that have advanced gradually, distributing ad equate measures of time and exertion for such will be not an overabundance and on the off chance that I truly need to achieve my particular partners' degree through inaccessible learning, at that point I ought to invest more energy to take a shot at my studies.Hence, I decided to achieve the last choice. Be that as it may, some of the time one can't just pick a choice over another particularly on the off chance that at least one of the potential decisions are with included earnestness. Since it is regularly that I am put in a circumstance wherein I need to settle on various potential assignments in which time is of the substance, I have built up an approach to join productive time the executives beside successful prioritization into my dynamic skills.To explain, proficient time the board in my own point of view relates to how the hours of the day or the times of the week are booked adequately so as to advance in my work and studies while as yet being a noteworthy nearness to my love d ones. Likewise, time the board relates to the truth that a few choices made or undertakings acknowledged might be done on one more day while a few occasions can't just be cultivated whenever missed the first run through around. According to prioritization however, only one out of every odd chance or undertaking that may not reoccur on an unmistakable time isn't generally the best choice so time the executives comparable to choice making.A genuine model for the utilization of productive time the board corresponding to dynamic is regarding picking between the alternatives of going to the birthday of my adored niece and proceeding my on-line examines. In the circumstance, it is very expected that the birthday celebration, alongside the chance to welcome her and give her a present face to face, would just happen at a particular time and date. Taking into account that I am falling behind as far as my on-line examines, I likewise contemplated utilizing my extra time to find the remainin g coursework.Of course, imagining that my investigations are progressively significant over the long haul, and my niece would most likely not loathe me that much on the off chance that I miss her birthday, my underlying response was to simply remain at home and proceed with my examinations. Later on, I understood that on the off chance that I missed the birthday, at that point it may make an unavoidable worry between us. Mulling over that on-line examines are distinctively adaptable in nature and progress might be made at one's own pace, at that point I just went to the birthday, remained for some time, and later on returned home to at long last proceed with the coursework that ought to be completed.Hence, the two errands were cultivated. The significant part of the dynamic procedure in this sense, is the capacity to delay something to be done sometime in the future yet at the same time ensuring that the deferred task is cultivated. What's more, it is additionally imperative to real ize which assignments ought to be led first and simultaneously acknowledge which undertakings can truly be put aside initially.In this sense, what works for me by and by as examined, is to use both time the board and prioritization in choosing which errands or occasions ought to be viewed as done first. Obviously, such a technique has some negative focuses also. As a rule however, from an individual viewpoint, it is unquestionably valuable to utilize proficient time the executives and successful prioritization corresponding to dynamic as reflected through the security of my own associations with loved ones, just as great efficiency at work and on my investigations.

Thursday, July 9, 2020

Racial Profiling is Morally Wrong Essay - 1100 Words

Racial Profiling is Morally Wrong (Essay Sample) Content: Name:Institution:Course:Date: Racial Profiling is Morally WrongRacial profiling relates to the law enforcement exercise of ensuring that law enforcement personnel substitute an ethnicity, race, national origin or religion for probable cause in establishing whether to continue with enforcement. Through this definition and by nature, racial profiling reveals itself as an issue of ethics at its center. Simply put, good judgment is associated with the right to act or decide to follow ones judgment. In essence, racial profiling relates to the unlawful practice employed by law enforcement officials based on color, race or ethnic backgrounds as a reason to suspect or apprehend an individual. Any person has the right to reach her or his own judgment. However, when an individuals principles and core beliefs become unethical or immoral, the judgment is distorted.As hinted above, racial profiling is founded on the unacceptable assumption that a particular ethnicity or race engag es in wrongdoing more than other ethnicities or races. Expectedly, the practice has aggravated racism in American society as some ethnicities or races feel they are targeted by others including the government (Risse Zeckhauser 42). In fact, it can contribute to the abuse and or harassment of racial minorities among our society. Fundamentally, therefore, the practice shreds the very fabric of our ideals. It becomes a product of immoral and unethical ideals plus beliefs in action. As mentioned earlier, the practice of racial profiling holds that certain ethnicities or races are more prone to criminal behavior and violence. This is wrong considering that criminals are a minority of any given population. As such, they are also a minority of any given ethnicity or race. It is a bare fact that most people, black or white, do not go stealing, smuggling drugs, assaulting and possessing illegal weapons. Therefore, even if a racial group is more prone to commit felony even felonies in all ki nds than other ethnic or racial sets, most individuals of that set are unlikely to engage in felony (Risse Zeckhauser 57). There may be considerable controversies regarding the level to which arrest rate reveal the actual occurrence of felonies and reveal unfairness against racial minorities, young men or the poor but crime is certainly committed by a minority of any set or subset within it. All in all, such evidence shows that racial profiling is not only wrong but also that it fails to serve the ideals of our society. In addition, one does not need to suppose the law enforcement personnel are prone to racism to deduce that the practice of racial profiling is unethical. There exists no good reason for pitting law enforcement personnel against racial minorities - and vice-versa- in instances that entail racial profiling. Nevertheless, racial profiling generates a real danger or death or injury for persons from certain ethnic or racial groups because the practice sends a message that such people are so unsafe than normal principles of procedural justice (for instance warrants for arrests) do not apply (Zack 30). Thus, one does not have to infer that law enforcement officers are particularly racist to worry that the practice generates serious risks for some persons. One merely has to assume that law enforcement personnel, like other citizens, are likely to become more anxious plus more prone to use force if they presume that they are dealing with individuals who are highly prone to violence. Considering such nations as the United States where law enforcement personnel are armed and probably expect wrongdoers from certain racial groups to be armed, the problem becomes acute. On the whole, racial profiling is not only unjustified but also wrong as it ultimately exacerbates any problems of racism among the police, and in our society at large (Zack 46). It is safe to state that it destabilizes the ideals of any modern society in which justice is crucial for peop le to accept one another plus co-exist peacefully. Indeed, virtually all humans suppose criminal justice professionals to carry themselves around in a professional manner devoid of expressing personal agendas and or views. And considering that law enforcement is a highly- regarded profession, ethical conduct is of paramount significance. This explains that these professionals ought to adhere to the strict code of ethics as well as their code of conduct. Among other things, the code of ethics explains that any law enforcement personnels fundamental duty revolves around protecting the innocent against cheating, the weak against intimidation and or oppression, as well as the peaceful against disorder or violence (Crank Caldero 216). In addition, they need to respect all constitutional rights including justice, liberty and equality. It is evident that the practice of racial profiling does not fit in polices code of ethics or conduct. No person in her or his right frame of mind would cl aim that oppression is right. Any officer, authorizing the department or government conducting this practice, therefore, engages in immoral, unethical as well as unconstitutional behavior. All in all, racial profiling has no positives as far as wellness of a society is concerned. Again, we do not require being indifferent to the victim of felonies to realize that the practice of racial profiling is fundamentally wrong as far as ethics is concerned. Most criminal activities are intra-racial, and not inter-racial. For instance, in the United States, young males from minority groups are ...

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Wallace Hume Carothers A History of Nylon

Wallace Carothers can be considered the father of the science of man-made polymers and the man responsible for the invention of nylon and neoprene. The man was a brilliant chemist, inventor and scholar, and a troubled soul. Despite an amazing career, Wallace Carothers held more than fifty patents; however, the inventor, unfortunately, ended his own life. Background and Education Wallace Carothers was born in Iowa and first studied accounting and later studied science (while teaching accounting) at Tarkio College in Missouri. While still an undergraduate student, Wallace Carothers became the head of the chemistry department. Wallace Carothers was talented in chemistry but the real reason for the appointment was a personnel shortage due to the war effort (WWI). He received both a Masters degree and Ph.D. from the University of Illinois and then became a professor at Harvard, where he started his research into chemical structures of polymers in 1924. Working for DuPont In 1928, the DuPont chemical company opened a research laboratory for the development of artificial materials, deciding that basic research was the way to go — not a common path for a company to follow at the time. Wallace Carothers left his position at Harvard to lead Duponts research division. A basic lack of knowledge of polymer molecules existed when Wallace Carothers began his work there. Wallace Carothers and his team were the first to investigate the acetylene family of chemicals. Neoprene and Nylon In 1931, DuPont started to manufacture neoprene, a synthetic rubber created by Carothers lab. The research team then turned their efforts towards a synthetic fiber that could replace silk. Japan was the United States main source of silk, and trade relations between the two countries were breaking apart. By 1934, Wallace Carothers had made significant steps toward creating synthetic silk by combining the chemicals amine, hexamethylene diamine, and adipic acid to create a new fiber formed by the polymerizing process and known as a condensation reaction. In a condensation reaction, individual molecules join with water as a byproduct. Wallace Carothers refined the process (since the water produced by the reaction was dripping back into the mixture and weakening the fibers) by adjusting the equipment so that the water was distilled and removed from the process making for stronger fibers. According to Dupont Nylon emerged from research on polymers, very large molecules with repeating chemical structures, that Dr. Wallace Carothers and his colleagues conducted in the early 1930s at DuPonts Experimental Station. In April 1930, a lab assistant working with esters — compounds which yield an acid and an alcohol or phenol in reaction with water — discovered a very strong polymer that could be drawn into a fiber. This polyester fiber had a low melting point, however. Carothers changed course and began working with amides, which were derived from ammonia. In 1935, Carothers found a strong polyamide fiber that stood up well to both heat and solvents. He evaluated more than 100 different polyamides before choosing one [nylon] for development. Nylon: Miracle Fiber In 1935, DuPont patented the new fiber known as nylon. Nylon, the miracle fiber, was introduced to the world in 1938. In a 1938 Fortune magazine article, it was written that nylon breaks the basic elements like nitrogen and carbon out of coal, air, and water to create a completely new molecular structure of its own. It flouts Solomon. It is an entirely new arrangement of matter under the sun, and the first completely new synthetic fiber made by man. In over four thousand years, textiles have seen only three basic developments aside from mechanical mass production: mercerized cotton, synthetic dyes, and rayon. Nylon is a fourth. Wallace Carothers Tragic End In 1936, Wallace Carothers married Helen Sweetman, a fellow employee at DuPont. They had a daughter, but tragically Wallace Carothers committed suicide before the birth of this first child. It was likely that Wallace Carothers was a severe manic-depressive, and the untimely death of his sister in 1937 added to his depression. A fellow Dupont researcher, Julian Hill, had once observed Carothers carrying what turned out to be a ration of the poison cyanide. Hill remarked that Carothers could list all the famous chemists who had committed suicide. In April of 1937, Wallace Hume Carothers consumed that ration of poison himself and added his own name to that list.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Business Portfolio - 1120 Words

Business Writing Portfolio Business Writing Portfolio Jacky Baker COM/285 January 04, 2011 Kenneth Mack Part I: Business Writing Steps Planning Analyzing the problem, defining your purposes, and analyzing the audience. Brainstorming information, benefits, and objections to include in the document. Gathering the information you need—from the message you’re answering, a person, a book, or the Web. Choosing a pattern of organization, making an outline, creating a list, writing headings. Writing Putting words on paper or on a screen. Writing can be lists, fragmentary notes, stream-of-consciousness writing, incomplete drafts, and ultimately a formal draft. Revising Evaluating your work and measuring†¦show more content†¦Store managers. 2. Store employees. 3. Retail customers and the public. * Identify the communication channels. 1. Oral or written * What the message is intended to do 1. Persuade, inform, praise or shock. †¢ Organize 1. The structure and format of the message. 2. Keep communication clear and concise. 3. Proofread the message. 4. Deliver the message. †¢ Follow-up 1. Was the message clear to the audience? 2. Does the audience have additional questions? 3. Any extra communication required? Part II: Portfolio Business Letter: Store Managers Torres Clothing and Sales 1234 Jose Ave Ponce, PR 00123 November 8, 2010 Mr. XXXXXXX 1234 Jose Ave Ponce, PR 00123 RE: Torres Clothing and Sales Retail Stores Modified Operations Dear XXXXXXX We would like to thank you for your dedication and hard work you have provided this company over the years. You may be aware of the increases in operational costs. Trying to battle against these higher costs without affecting our employees, we want to take this opportunity to inform you of the upcoming changes to our retail chains. These changes should ease your current position, save our employees’ money and time, and in the end guarantee the survival of our company. 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Running Head Marketing

Question : How you will go marketing a product or sevice, include situational analysis. swot analysis, customer and competitor analysis,4Ps of the marketing mix ? Answer : Introduction Marketing a product and convincing the customers to buy it, is one of the techniques which is difficult to handle and yet too convincing task. In present era, there are so many alternatives of the same product that there is a dilemma as to which companies would be able to provide with the best services as and so when required. If one is buying a mobile from a shop, then he/she has to find what other mobile phones are coming in the same range, he has chosen. There is a need to be fully (Kotabe Helsen, 2014) equipped with all the knowledge so that he does not regret with the product quality later, rather try to hover more on his choice. This is only possible when the management of the product and the customer relationship management has been properly taken into consideration. As per the organisational development, the history of the organisation is well-settled and people are continuously being employed to work in it to enhance the productivity and creativity factor. All over the worl d, Samsung has tried to spread its recognition, thereby, allocating more than 5lakh people in the different countries especially almost all countries like Australia, India etc. the output being increasingly appreciating for all those who want to earn profit and revenue from it. Summary Heading towards the development, one has to face all the technology changes as well as difference in the factor to upgrade the operating system in the Samsung mobile phones especially. The phenomenon could be ranging from the more focused approached to a higher differential ranging factor, which supports the basic distribution of the product. In mobile phones especially of Samsung, there are problems of battery, operating system and its updation. Generally the updates are seen to come on it after a long time with no guarantee on the older phone software. The people have to lure to a market share which is definitely increasing, with the launch of new product of the same company. Hence, here, one can experience a lot of humdrum along with many opportunities striking the way. The sellers have the best experience and they are able to advice a proper defined ranged according to the 4Ps of marketing, which they follow, namely, product, promotion, price, and place. The Samsung Mobile phones have to target the customers and retain them to position their aim at the right product within the time limit. The mobiles have become a status symbol for many and those of whom try looking forward to those which are best according to the comparison with other brands. The product is said to be properly processed from the wholesaler to the customer and there is a benefit to every person in this transaction. Situational Analysis Political forces The packages and the material is under the trial purpose so that any disturbance or woes can easily be managed according to the duties levied on them. The launch of a product and the development of the opportunities try to knock the doors which will help in keeping the market trend high and generate the better environment with new demands and opportunities. There is enforcement of the political factors like the taxation on the Samsung mobile product according to the organisational set which varies from time to time and according to the manufacturing of the mobile phone. There is a more specific arrangement which varies according to the international and national markets where the rates of the product vary as per the product instability. Economic forces The policy to have certain margin generally fights the forces to economic factors which have the confidence to gear up the savings of a customer and driving them to better credential factors which leads to the level of employment. (Woodside, 2014). The Samsung mobile company has to consider and bring out the better revenue yearly so that they can manufacture the products on a larger scale with new technologies. This surely helps in assigning work for the unemployed people with the exchange in the rates and the growth. Socio-cultural forces There are certain extensions of the product which improves and revised the existence of the positioning, trying to come up with lessened cost and improved product approach. The concept to test and market the prototype generally depends on how the market is launched and the opportunities depends on the way to scan the marketing success and development. This will help to maintain the imaginative cultural and the socio-cultural environment to create and effective communication with the customers of the shopkeepers. Depending upon the demand of the customers, there is a variable transaction which variants as per the frequency with which the product is being purchased. There is a possibility that Samsung has to face competition with the other mobile phone companies but it is the customer who has to be rigid to decide that it is a long lasting less problematic and easy servicing organisation, providing the benefits to the people on their loyal work. Technological forces The transaction to settle up the strategies of the customer tries to benefit from the society which will have orientation turning the table according to the opportunities that lie on the way. The Samsung mobile company tries to focus more on how to shift towards the values and the competitive approach which has a development to reach the technology, attain a better economic effect on the income and the rules and regulations are being receptive, accordingly. The Mobile Company Samsung sometimes have to undergo a great work of analysing, which will bring a different approach to the rise in technology. The recent introduction of the Samsung note series tries to fully induce all the features, suitable for the customer and to be able enough to operate in the need. Legal Forces In order to determine the opportunity which has a variance in the segmentation and the annual usage, there is a growth which anticipates the marginal use, with the varying strengths according to the change in the concept and the conceptualised response. The legalities and the forces which are required to follow by Samsung Company are under a proper guidance and there are certain engineers allotted to look for the same. Conventionally trying to place in all the training forces, the Trading act of practicing, have its impact, leading to a rise in the development of (Chaston, 2014) the product as per the product management. Competitor Analysis The competition in the market is growing with time. With the eruption of different technologies, all the people want to be engrosses in such type of system which is able to maintain and improve their phone quality. This is one of the range which defines building a better reputation and Samsung Mobiles have successfully tried to do so with their differential trademark on their mobile phone. The pure oligopoly competition at each level defines the monthly budget of the mobile and the brand name is affected according to that. The companies try to fight with the other brands to reach the level of competition, trying to bring a raise to the standard. Customer and client Analysis The customer retention is only possible if he/she is properly trained to acknowledge that the product he/she is buying if of the best quality and it will clearly differentiate the cycle to exam the different extensional approach. The customers of Samsung mobile phones try to examine how many schemes and cashback are available which bring a fixation to the size and the marketing structure. To conceptualise with the needs of the customer and profitability, there is a need to create a policy which will be able to manage all the products with a great efficiency and segmentation, trying to outline and label the marketing sales which will be important to segment the convenience and health, modifying approaches which leads to sustainability and the quality, in the best schemes provided. SWOT Analysis The people via different locations are able to track that where they will be able to get the product in the best price range. There are Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats which try to lay down the basic system of management. Strength The people are directly able to lead to a favourable factor which is basically supporting the external organisations, directly influencing the factors which can affect the characteristics. There is a need to remember and examine how the opportunities are engaged which will lead to an organisational set-up of the Samsung mobile Company along with management of the financial set-up. Opportunity There are certain strategies which are important to be met to attain a specific and measurable approach which will be able to have better action in time as per the reasonable and timed schedule. There is a need to set up strategy which will have differentiation in the cost as per the strategies and the focus will lead to mainly setting up the mind of the customers with higher quality. Weakness There are times when the companies are not able to promote their product according to their availability. This can lead to a downgrading impact in the market as the customer wont be happy with the work and the money spent to publicise it. The Samsung Company tries to hide all its weakness, thereby, bringing an overall cover-up to the situations, which can lead to stability of all the factors like revenue and profitability of the organisation. Threats The positioning and the promotion along with the product and the pricing scheme tries to mainly influence the strategies as per the addressing scenario which has an appropriate addressing to the discussions which will be able to organise the product and the services. There are other competitors in the market who try to bring a strong impact on the company rise and it is the organisation itself who has to take care of its existence. Financial and Marketing Objectives In order to bring the technologies in hand, the customer has to be assured that the organisation is going to work hand-in-hand, providing all the essential services as soon as the problem is logged into it. Specific- The work of increasing marketing strategy is generally within its limit with an approach to systematically program all the technologies, intending to a larger customer demand in the market. Measurable- The product can be measured in terms of dollars or the currency, according to which it is achieving success. Achievable- one can achieve the objective which would lead to a better and a smart approach to buy mobile Realistic- The people have a desire where they can differentiate and communicate more on the factors which will have specific hold on the market with a measuring approach, leading to different actions. Time Specific- It is required to achieve the target in time to balance the analysis of the management revenue. Overall Marketing Strategy The effective cost to manage the leadership cost and efficiently planning the range of the product which is comparable yet effective enough to attract the Samsung customer to buy the product. This will achieve the realistic approach and improve the level of success, thereby, maximising sales along with a proper funding to the organisation. Segmentation Targeting Market The research is mainly for discussing that the preference factor should be more to buy those which have and provide a better trending information leading to a coverage of the price and advertise the product to reach higher standards of sale. The brand and the packaging factor generally attracts the people, convincing them to sale the procedures as per the development approach, leading to remain in the ideas which will be modified and launched only after being tested by the customer. Marketing Mix Strategy Product- The marketing strategy generally tries to aim towards the production strategy which will be able to include the brand and try to keep the price as per the demand of the general regular customers. Price- The plans are exercised as per the information which will end up with a proficient technology as well as the price available in the market in order to maintain a competency factor too. Promotion- There are places where the promotion and advertisements through posters can help people acknowledge about the new product of Samsung in the market. Place- The distribution of the mobile phones are not equal. This could be tracked with how much demand has been there in a particular city, which will enable to enhance marketing in a certain area. Budget Implementation The planning and the budgeting plan is implemented as per the yearly sale. The records help in detecting whether people are interested in buying the phone or not. On implementing the survey and researches, it was found that many people run after Samsung mobiles as there is a great promotion of every product in the market awakening the customer to be updated with all the updates and the functioning in their mobile phones. Evaluation Control To control the product, there is a need to take feedback from the customer on the usage which will notify how the product is helpful or ruining their need. It is very important to look whether the customer is satisfied with the plan or not which will evaluate the process according the refinement plan. The assurance to directly attach with the achievable and realistic objectives will outline the need of the customer. Conclusion With the efforts of coming up with new and efficient technologies, the people try to mainly try and use the recent technology product which will outline their personality as per the evaluation. The decisions of the purchase of the product has to be minutely decided and discussed because it will ultimately effect the product share and the preferential rate will automatically affect the demand with which the people are reviewing the group products as well as other products. Reference Chaston, I. (2014).Small business marketing. Palgrave Macmillan. Woodside, A. G. (2014). A Primer to the General Theory of Behavioral Strategies in Business-to-Business Marketing.Field Guide to Case Study Research in Business-to-Business Marketing and Purchasing (Advances in Business Marketing and Purchasing, Volume 21) Emerald Group Publishing Limited,21, 147-166. Kotabe, M. M., Helsen, K. (2014).Global marketing management. Wiley Global Education.

Wednesday, April 22, 2020

Melodrama Review free essay sample

Imagine this, a boy at a party in the corner away from the crowd. He pulls up his phone and starts to listen to music. The first song the comes up is a song he has never heard. The singer had a soft gentle voice and even though talking about a somewhat sensitive subject. Her voice as soft as a silk and her words sang just like a true poet. This Is what I thoughtâ€Å"Liability† the first time I heard it. That was also how I discovered â€Å"Melodrama†, Lordes newest album. â€Å"Melodrama† is put together beautifully, but is also an album that needs a little bit of work. After I listened to the album I would like to share my opinion on the song Liability, on the album itself, and on Lorde as an artist. My opinion on the song â€Å"Liability† is very positive since it’s now one of my favorite songs. We will write a custom essay sample on Melodrama Review or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page I really like this song probably for the story it tells. It’s about a young girl living and having one of the best summers of her life. When the summer is over she goes back to see her summer â€Å"friends†, then realizes that they moved on without her. This song very is powerful and poetic. Due to those reasons that is why Liability is one of my favorite songs. But When it comes to the album that’s a different story. When it comes to Lorde’s new album it wasn’t the best. Her other album â€Å"Pure Heroine†, was one of my favorite albums but â€Å"Melodrama† is not very good. I’m not saying she’s a bad artist, its just that I don’t like the album. In her â€Å"Pure Heroine† she talks, or sings technically, about things I can relate to. Her single â€Å"Tennis Court† talks about people who put up fronts so everyone around them will never actually how they feel. â€Å"Pure Heroine† has three really good songs. The songs are called â€Å"Tennis Court†, â€Å"Royals†, and â€Å"Team†. On the album â€Å"Melodrama† there are only two songs I like. The songs are called â€Å"Green Light† and of course â€Å"Liability†. â€Å"Green Light† is the most popular song from the album, but I think â€Å"Liability† is the better. A lot the things she does when compared to the rest of her stuff isn’t the best. I may not like Melodrama as much as â€Å"Pure Heroine†, but that doesnt mean I dislike Lorde. Lorde was very young when her first album came out at the age of 17. It took four years for Lorde to release her second album. Lorde as a person seems like a girl who wants people to see how fun she is before, so they dont see how she’s hurting on the inside. My reasoning for this is the song â€Å"Liability†. Some lyrics in the song include, â€Å"I know that its exciting running through the night, but every perfect summers eating me alive until youre gone.† But after listening to â€Å"Liability† I still love the song. After listening to the album about 15 times I have only a few things to say. I may only really favor one song from the album and dislike the rest, I still like Lorde, even if I don’t like all of her music.

Monday, March 16, 2020

Meaning Of Death Essays - Theatre Of The Absurd, Waiting For Godot

Meaning Of Death Essays - Theatre Of The Absurd, Waiting For Godot Meaning Of Death Death is a word that we know and fear, but what exactly does the word death mean to you? The end of life? The end of time? The end of hope? Wellmaybe. Some see Death as a messenger sent by god to take away people's lives. For some people, death is the worse of the worse thing of all, but for the protagonists in the plays Amadeus and Waiting for Godot death is something that they do not fear. They actually want to die or use death as a tool to achieve a certain goal. Although this might sound odd, there is a solid logic behind it. While death is a significant theme in both plays, the meaning of death between the two plays varies. In the play Waiting for Godot, Estragon and Vladimir were trapped in the days simply waiting for Godot. Throughout the two days of the play, most of the things that happened on the second day were identical to those happened on the first. The days always began with Estragon coming back from the ditch and meeting Vladimir; Estragon tries to take or takes off the boots; Pozzo and Lucky comes in; the idea of hanging themselves and leaving; the Boy comes in and tell them that Mr.Godot can't come but will come for sure tomorrow; Estragon tries to sleep; and then the day is over and Estragon goes back to the ditch. Their days were too boring and repetitive, and they were struggling to kill time by finding something to do: VLADIMIR: That passed the time. ESTRAGON: It ould have passed in any case. VLADIMIR: Yes, but not so rapidly. Pause. ESTRAGON: What do we do now? VLADIMIR: I don't know. (Beckette, P.32) On both days in the play, Estragon wanted to leave the country road and go somewhere else, but when Vladimir reminds him that they are Waiting for Godot, Estragon then changed his mind and stayed with Vladimir to wait for Godot: ESTRAGON: Let's go. VLADIMIR: We can't. ESTRAGON: Why not? VLADIMIR: We're waiting for Godot. ESTRAGON: (despairingly). Ah! Pause. (Beckette, P.31) In addition, the two bums wanted to hang themselves on both days, but on the first day they were afraid that if one died the other would be left alone, on the second day the rope broke while they were testing it to see if it was strong enough to hang them. This idea of hanging themselves was Estragon's: VLADIMIR: It's for the kidneys. (Silence. Estragon looks attentively at the tree.) What do we do now? ESTRAGON: Wait. VLADIMIR: Yes, but while waiting. ESTRAGON: What about hanging ourselves? VALDIMIR: Hmm. It'd give us an erection. ESTRAGON: (highly excited). An erection! (Beckette, P.12) This is because he couldn't stand the boredom and he wanted a form of change very badly. They seem to be trapped in the repetitive process of waiting for Godot, and they believe that they will be either happier when they hang themselves or when Godot eventually arrives to save them. Although Godot is referred to as a person in the play, we can certainly think of Godot as death itself, and that is what the two friends are waiting for. Still, death is considered to be a change and that's what Vladimir and Estragon wants. No matter what/who Godot is, Godot will still be the one who can give them this change that they so desperately need. Therefore, the result of both choices is death. In this case, death is considered to be a change or an escape from suffering in life, and both Estragon and Vladimir were not afraid of death, but rather they were hoping that death will come and end their suffer. The reason why Estragon and Vladimir have to wait for Godot (death) instead of killing themse lves is because they don't have the ability to die together. If only one of them dies, the other will be left alone and not be able to die. For example, if Estragon wants to hang himself and die, Vladimir had to lift him up so he could reach the tree and tie the rope; but after Estragon dies, there would be no one to lift Vladimir up the tree so he could hang himself. Although this reason is not mentioned in the play, this is the only

Saturday, February 29, 2020

A Plot Summary of a Movie About Cuban Refugees in America

A Plot Summary of a Movie About Cuban Refugees in America In 1980, Fidel Castro sent hundreds of thousands of Cubans from his country on rafts to America. Castro not only sent everyday people to America on boats; he used this as a chance to clear out his crowded jail cells. There was an estimated 25,000 former Cuban inmates that arrived in Florida. Tony Montana is one of the masses of criminals sent by Cuba to America. His only chance to get a green card was to kill Rebenga, a former political leader from Cuba. Montana had no trouble executing the former communist leader. Tony moves to Miami and agrees to do a job for a big time cocaine dealer, Frank Lopez. Frank noticed the good job Tony did for him and in turn wants Montana to continue working for him. Lopez sends him to Bolivia to work on a deal with Sosa, their cocaine supplier. While there Tony seizes an opportunity to go into business for himself. Tony shoots his way to the top of a drug crime family, killing both friend and foe alike. Finally after murdering his boss and marrying his bosss girlfriend, hes crowned drug kingpin. Tony starts having legal problems and rather than do time, his supplier Sosa offered to take care of the court case if Tony would take an assassin with him to New York to eliminate one of his enemies. This was the begging of the end for Tony Montana. The man who was supposed to be eliminated had his wife and kids in the car with him. Tony was against killing women and children but the assassin wouldn’t listen to him; so Tony shot him. Tonys decline was caused by his twisted sense of brotherhood. When Sosa learned of this he was furious. He sent a small army of men to Tony’s home to kill him. Tony didn’t go down easy, but in the end he still went down. Drugs in this movie portrayed money and power. Whoever distributed the drugs had control of the others around him who didn’t. The main goal of many characters in this movie was to get people under you so they can do your dirty work. All major characters in this movie were obsessed with money drugs, and women. Tony’s philosophy was: â€Å"First you get the money, then you get the power, and then you get the women. The unhealthy messages about drugs conveyed in this movie suggest that they are a quick way to make cash but can ultimately be someone’s downfall. Tony’s drug control led to other problems. He couldn’t get his money laundered from his normal banker because the more money Tony gave the banker, the higher the interest charge he would receive in return. Tony’s best friend set up a meeting with a different banker; who happened to be an undercover police officer. Drugs are also portrayed as a way to get women. Elvira, the woman of Tony’s obsession, went from one boyfriend to another based on who could supply her cocaine addiction. In one particular scene Frank tells Tony the two key rules to success in the drug business. Rule number one is to â€Å"never underestimate the other guys greed.† Rule number two is to â€Å"never get high on your own supply.† This came back to haunt Tony because later in the movie Frank hired two hitters to take Tony out right during a performance by octavio the clown. Just when octavio was waddling around the stage, the hitters opened fire. Luckily for Tony, they werent great shots. Tony managed to evade them and escaped through the door. Tony knew it was Frank. The only thing to do was to strike back. So, he went right over to Franks. Frank denied any involvement. He said it was the Diaz brothers. Tony wasnt fooled and Frank cracked. He admitted to what he did and knelt down and groveled at Tonys feet. Tony ordered his death. The last scene was the most memorable because Tony had crossed Sosa, the powerful cocaine supplier and Sosa sent his army to execute Tony. Tony was so doped up on cocaine that he took seven or eight shots in the chest and didn’t feel any pain. He made the statement: â€Å"Your bullets can’t hurt me.† It took a shotgun blast in the back to finally kill Tony. Tony’s death was as violent as his life. I would definitely recommend this movie to others, especially if they’re the kind of person who enjoys violent, action-packed movies. was very realistic and shows how a Cuban refugee could have climbed up ladder to become a very powerful drug dealer. This film was very violent and bloody. Compared to some films today, the violence isn’t as bad as people thought it was in 1983. One of my favorite scenes in the movie is when Tony’s friend Angel is getting cut into pieces with a chainsaw. The blood splatters everywhere. The music in this film sometimes seemed lifeless and boring. When you take into consideration that it was made almost eighteen years ago, the music doesn’t sound too bad. I think Frank Lopez’s first rule of how to succeed applies to every aspect of your business life. Because no matter how bad you may want something, there’s always going to be someone else who wants it more than you.

Thursday, February 13, 2020

English Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

English - Assignment Example In this song, they proudly wear the discriminatory remarks as ornaments as if saying, ‘yes! We are who we are, what are can you do about it?’ The poems ‘Rhythm Blues’ and ‘Bang Bang Outishly’ by Amiri Baraka also talk about racisms and how dangerous they are for the growth of a healthy society. One poem says that â€Å"if capitalism won’t kill me, racism will† while the other stresses on â€Å"Let it be!† These poems are just more decent and more spiritual form of repelling racism. What the rap music have portrayed in the 90s in a very raw and unedited format, these poems by Baraka do the same only in a very gentle yet powerful way with subtle but meaningful choice of words. Dear John, Dear Coltrane by Michael Harper is also a poem talking about racial discrimination in North Carolina. But what is common in all of these poetic masterpieces is the fact that they all give a message to all humanity that they need to embrace people as they are. For instance, in his poem, at one point Harper takes up a question-answer format where he asks,† Why you so black?† and the a nswer come â€Å"cause I am† then again, â€Å"Why you so funky?† and the answer is â€Å"cause I am†. This is just another way of saying that black people are who they are, it is not a disease or something that they control. Being an African American in an identity and the world needs to take this community as they

Saturday, February 1, 2020

United states v. ziegler Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

United states v. ziegler - Essay Example However, his plea for suppression of his case was thrown out after it was argued that the office and an office computer does not belong to a person but it is an entity for the employer. The appellate argued that the employer pays the rent for the office and supply computer to his employee (Appeal from the United States District Court for the District of Montana). Nevertheless, after Ziegler was convicted he appealed the ruling in the Ninth Circuit court. The court overturned the decision of the lower court by arguing that Ziegler right were contravened when his office machine was searched without his notice or a search warrant. The judge said that Ziegler office attracted privacy as he did not share it with other employees. The court argued â€Å"Because Ziegler had a reasonable expectation of privacy in his office, any search of that space and the items located therein must comply with the Fourth Amendment† (Appeal from the United States District Court for the District of Montana). In conclusion, I do agree with the decision of the Ninth Circuit court that privacy in the office also is protected in the Fourth

Friday, January 24, 2020

Essay --

Fish constitutes a key source of animal protein for much of the world’s population.[1] Global fishery catches from marine ecosystems were highest in the mid-1980s and have been decreasing ever since despite increasing fishing effort [2]. Many of the world’s oceans wild fish stocks are completely exploited, so the capture fisheries are no longer sustainable. In 2004 the United Nations State of the World’s Fisheries report indicated that â€Å"52 percent of the oceans' wild fish stocks are fully exploited.[3]. In response to the decline of wild fisheries, many of the countries have put their effort to aquaculture. Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic plants and animals. FAO placed the global Aquaculture at 60 million tonnes in 2010,[1], which is about 41.2 % of the total fish production in the World. European Union (EU) countries contribute to 4% of the world aquaculture production. The value of EU aquaculture production was â‚ ¬ 3.1 billion for 1.26 million tonnes of production in 2010[4]. Available data show a growing gap – estimated at 8 million tonnes – between the level of consumption of seafood in the EU and the volume of captures from fisheries. Thus the European Union is giving a priority to expansion of Aquaculture in its Members countries. Because of the many issues involved aquaculture, there is a deliberate measu re by the EU to keep up policies which will ensure that the expansion of aquaculture is in done in an environmentally, socially and economically sustainable way by member countries. Here I discuss the general concepts of aquaculture and the significance of the EU aquaculture policies under the EU Union common fisheries policy (CFP) for the growth of aquaculture in the region. I also compare these policies with other ma... ...ave led to success of china aquaculture include availability of market, diverse and diversity of fish products. Prioritization of the aquaculture as important sector of the economy also contributes to the significance difference in production between the EU and china.[13] The major differences that can be seen between aquaculture in China and in the European union is that in china aquaculture production is more focused to production while the European Union focuses on the Environmental challenges. Conclusion The aquaculture sector has a strategic importance in contribution to food security and its growth is very promising especially under the blue growth economy. Despite the many challenges facing the aquaculture industry in the EU the growth can be realized if the polices and strategies under the CFP for aquaculture are implemented by the member countries. â€Æ' Essay -- Fish constitutes a key source of animal protein for much of the world’s population.[1] Global fishery catches from marine ecosystems were highest in the mid-1980s and have been decreasing ever since despite increasing fishing effort [2]. Many of the world’s oceans wild fish stocks are completely exploited, so the capture fisheries are no longer sustainable. In 2004 the United Nations State of the World’s Fisheries report indicated that â€Å"52 percent of the oceans' wild fish stocks are fully exploited.[3]. In response to the decline of wild fisheries, many of the countries have put their effort to aquaculture. Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic plants and animals. FAO placed the global Aquaculture at 60 million tonnes in 2010,[1], which is about 41.2 % of the total fish production in the World. European Union (EU) countries contribute to 4% of the world aquaculture production. The value of EU aquaculture production was â‚ ¬ 3.1 billion for 1.26 million tonnes of production in 2010[4]. Available data show a growing gap – estimated at 8 million tonnes – between the level of consumption of seafood in the EU and the volume of captures from fisheries. Thus the European Union is giving a priority to expansion of Aquaculture in its Members countries. Because of the many issues involved aquaculture, there is a deliberate measu re by the EU to keep up policies which will ensure that the expansion of aquaculture is in done in an environmentally, socially and economically sustainable way by member countries. Here I discuss the general concepts of aquaculture and the significance of the EU aquaculture policies under the EU Union common fisheries policy (CFP) for the growth of aquaculture in the region. I also compare these policies with other ma... ...ave led to success of china aquaculture include availability of market, diverse and diversity of fish products. Prioritization of the aquaculture as important sector of the economy also contributes to the significance difference in production between the EU and china.[13] The major differences that can be seen between aquaculture in China and in the European union is that in china aquaculture production is more focused to production while the European Union focuses on the Environmental challenges. Conclusion The aquaculture sector has a strategic importance in contribution to food security and its growth is very promising especially under the blue growth economy. Despite the many challenges facing the aquaculture industry in the EU the growth can be realized if the polices and strategies under the CFP for aquaculture are implemented by the member countries. â€Æ'

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Evaluation of Genetic Diversity of Golden Apple Snail, Pomacea Canaliculata

ABSTRACT Genetics is a trend these days especially that, DNA barcoding has been developed. DNA barcoding is an important tool in categorizing the taxa of different species and it tells so much about the species’ traits, including genetic diversity. The Pomacea canaliculata was introduced in different parts of Asia and had been an invasive species and a pest in different ecosystems ever since the introduction. In understanding this species of snails, samples were collected, DNA’s were extracted, undergone PCR and electrophoresis, and was sequenced and analyzed.The analysis was qualitative In the Philippines while quantitative in China. In the Philippines, the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) genes was used and compared among the species collected and when it was sequenced, it showed differences due to localized gap, mismatch and non-correspondence of bases. And in China, the diversity was analyzed by means of Nei’s gene diversity, Shannon’s information in dex, percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB) an AMOVA anlysis. Both the quantitative and qualitative showed that there was diversification within and among the populations of these snails.INTRODUCTION Genetics is the study of the genes, and the heredity and variation of individuals. Understanding the genome, which is the complete set of chromosomes or the entire genotype of an individual, is important because it helps in the taxonomy of species, especially nowadays wherein advancements in science needs more specific information, and that basing on morphological features is not enough. Life is specified by genomes which contain all the biological information which is encoded in its deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and divided into units or the genes.The genes are the blueprint for life because it is the particulate determiner of hereditary traits. Hence, DNA barcoding became a trend for scientists and researchers for the understanding of the different variations in the traits of different o rganisms. The golden apple snails (Pomacea canaliculata) originated from the South America, Central America, the West Indies and the Southern USA (Pain 1972) and was spread in the past decades to the different parts of Southeast Asia, namely Philippines, China, Thailand, Cambodia, Hong Kong, Indonesia and Japan.The introduction of the P. canaliculata without prior studies caused damages to the different plants and it became an invasive species which resulted to becoming pests to humans and competitors to other local snails, example of which are those from the genus Pili. The P. canaliculata was observed to have different growth and reproduction in different parts of Asia, together with their external characteristics due to the different habitats and environmental conditions (Keawjam, 1986 and 1987), therefore there is the possibility to misidentify two sympatric species as one.On the other hand allopatric populations inhabiting different habitats may show ecomorphological variations and questionable species status and it was also suggested that the golden apple snails had high adaptability hence it was easier for them to form new populations (Dong et al. 2011). The understanding of the genomes of different species is a trend for scientists these days but the information about the different mollusks is still limited. The basic information on the number of species and/or population is of help for conservation programs (Carvalho and Hauser, 1994) and for building appropriate management schemes.In contribution, the studies aims are to evaluate the genetic diversity of the golden apple snail population in Asia, namely, Philippines and China via molecularly characterizing the P. canaliculata and to find different ways of analyzing the gathered data from the sequenced DNA of the said species. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Genetic diversity (Reed 2005) The significance of genetic diversity arose from two necessities: genetic diversity is required for populations to evo lve in response to environmental changes and heterozygosity levels are linked directly to reduce population fitness via inbreeding depression.The amount of genetic variation a population contains is predicted to correlate with current fitness and, in the case of heritabilities (which can remain high or even increase despite severe reductions in population size) with evolutionary potential. This correlation between fitness and levels of genetic variation, however, may be weak or nonexistent due to the neutrality of molecular markers used in estimating heterozygosity, nonadditive genetic variation and the purging of deleterious alleles because of increased selection against homozygotes.There is a body of literature that suggests that allozyme heterozygosity is a good measure of population fitness and adaptive potential. Others caution though that such molecular genetic data generally reflect only a small portion of genome and thus may not be indicator of adaptive genetic differences. But molecular markers may be useful for assessing the extent of genetic drift. Moreover, deleterious alleles, in mutation-selection balance, are responsible for at least half of the genetic variation in fitness.Selection has the tendency to purge the population of the deleterious recessive alleles which in theory creates inbred populations with a higher fitness than their outbreed progenitor. In other words, inbred populations with less genetic diversity would have higher fitness if the population is not kept small enough for a long enough to allow the fixation of deleterious alleles to occur. Fitness and future adaptability are reduced in smaller populations of plants and animals due to drift and inbreeding depression.Commonly used surrogates for fitness such as heritabilities, heterozygosity, and population size, significantly correlate with fitness and explain 15-20 % of the variation in fitness. Correlations suggest that many populations have reduced fitness as a result of inbre eding depression and genetic drift. There is much fuss and concern thus, over genetic variation because of the fact that endangered species typically have lower levels of heterozygosity and the loss of adaptive genetic variation and inbreeding depression puts wildlife populations at an increased risk of extinction.Finally, this increase occurs as a result of the reduction of productive fitness because of inbreeding depression or due to the failure of tracking the change in abiotic and biotic environment of the population as a result of the loss of genetic variation through drift. DNA barcoding (Moritz & Cicero 2004) At the very core, the purpose of DNA barcoding is for large scale screening of one or a few reference genes in order to assign unknown individuals to species and enhance discovery of new species.In the hope of developing a comprehensive database of sequences that will serve as a comparison tool to sequences from sampled individuals, proponents used DNA barcoding. There i s, however, nothing new with DNA barcoding as it is an offshoot of the use molecular markers for the very same purpose except, in DNA barcoding, there is an increased scale and proposed standardization. The selection of one or more reference genes characterizes standardization, with regards to microbial community and in stimulating large scale phylogenetic analyses if of proven value, though whether or not one gene fits all remain to be a question.Presently, most methods of DNA barcoding are tree-based and can fall into two broadly defined classes. One class is the distance-based, wherein it is based on the degree of DNA sequence variation within and between species. This kind of approach converts DNA sequences into genetic distances and then uses these distances to establish identification schemes. It further defines a similarity threshold below which a DNA barcode is assigned to a known or a new species. There is also the mention by several authors of a â€Å"barcoding gap† , a distance-gap between intra- and interspecific sequences, for species identification.However, the distance-based approach seems to be ill suited as a general means for species identification and the discovery of new species. One reason is that substitution rates of mitochondrion DNA vary between and within species and between different groups of species. The varied substitution rates can result in broad overlaps of intra- and interspecific distances, and hinder the accurate assignment of query sequences. Another class which is the monophyly-based requires the recovery of species as discrete clades (monophyly) on a phylogenetic tree and is used to assign unknown taxa to a known or new species.Similarly, some issues complicate the use of monophyly in a barcoding framework. For example, the long-recognized problem of incomplete lineage sorting will yield gene genealogies that may differ in topology from locus to locus. The recently divergent taxa may not be reciprocally monophyletic due to lack of time needed to coalesce. In addition, the gene trees are not necessarily congruent with species trees, and the monophyly, while a discrete criterion is arbitrary with respect to taxonomic level.Moreover, there is a recently applied new technique that has been proposed as an alternative to tree-based approaches for DNA barcoding, the so called character-based DNA barcode method, which is based on the fundamental concept that members of a given taxonomic group share attributes that are absent from comparable groups. It is the kind of method that characterizes species through a unique combination of diagnostic characters rather than genetic distances. The four standard nucleotides (A,T,C,G) if found in fixed states in one species can be used as diagnostics for identifying that species.This way, species boundaries can be defined by a diagnostic set of characters which can be increased to any level of resolution by applying multiple genes. Presently, character-based DNA b arcode method has been proved useful for species identification and discovery of several taxa. In the view that single-gene sequence should be the primary identifier of species, a contention arises that if that is the case then there’ll be a real need to connect different life history stages and increase the precision and efficiency of field studies involving diverse and difficult-to-identify taxa.Although the DNA barcoding community has put emphasis on the importance of large-scale sequence database within the existing framework and practice of systematics, it should be bore in mind that DNA barcoding is not the primary answer in resolving the tree of life. Furthermore, as much as the term â€Å"DNA barcoding† appealing, it implies, however, that each species has a fixed and invariant characteristic. But this kind of implication renders unrest to the minds of evolutionary biologists.In evaluating thus, the promise and pitfall of DNA barcoding, two areas of application should be distinguished: the molecular diagnostics of individuals relative to described taxa and DNA-led discovery of new species. And although there is little doubt that large-scale and standardized sequencing, when integrated with existing taxonomic practice, can contribute significantly to the challenges of identifying individuals and increasing the rate of discovering biological diversity as presented by this study, the general utility of DNA barcoding still requires further scrutiny.PCR (Moore 2005) In rapidly copying a selected template sequence from a DNA mixture in vitro, PCR offers a wide range of applications such as sequence detection and isolation for research, forensics and species identification through the PCR itself and in combination with other techniques. PCR's new technique uses flourescent probes to monitor the amounted product at end of every cycle and PCR machines look for the cycle at which the can readily detect flourescence.PCR is also being used to monitor RNA through the addition of reverse transcriptase enzyme at the beginning to generate DNA template. In addition, there are now new applications of PCR like single nucleotide polymorphism detection and screening. Cytochrome Oxydase subunit 1 (COI) (Buhay 2009) COI plays a significant role in documenting biodiversity and remains to be the choice for phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies. COI is a mitochondrial protein-coding gene which is a widely accepted marker for molecular identification across diverse taxa.Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have a relatively fast mutation rate, thus they result in significant differences between species. With respect to this, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene with ~700bp was proposed to be a potential barcode or marker for molecular identification across various taxa. Furthermore, COI is a protein coding gene that has an open reading frame and in thecase of barcoding, COI can be highly divergent from the actual COI sequences which may cause major problems because species identification is based on sequence similarity.Pomacea canaliculata (Cowie 2002) The Pomacea canaliculata belongs to the family Ampullariidae. Its structure appears to have a slight dimorphism in shape of aperture and operculum. Females have broader mouth and concave operculum while convex in male. In terms of reproduction, oviposition often takes place at night or at early morning or evening about 24 hrs after copulation up to two weeks after mating (occurs three times per week) which occurs anytime of the day or night although there may be some diurnal rhythm.On each oviposition occasion a single clutch is laid of highly variable egg number. Moreover, the interval among successive ovipositions for p. canaliculata has been reported to be about five days and hatching generally takes place about two weeks after oviposition. The P. canaliculata breeds only during summer and grows into maturity in less than two months. P. canaliculata is s aid to be prolific and hence has rapid succession of generations which leads to rapid population expansion.They relatively inhabit still water and in water temperatures above 32 degree Celsius, it has been observed that the mortality of p. canaliculata is high. Whereas in low temperature p. canaliculata can survive 15-20 days at 0 degree Celsius, 2 days at -3 degree Celsius but only 6 hrs at -6 degree Celsius. And it is sufficiently tolerant of sea water to survive long enough to be carried by currents from one stream mouth to another, thereby expanding its distribution. P. canaliculata shows preferences among food plants.Its rate of growth has a direct correlation with its feeding on the preferred plant. Moreover, it is able to detect its food plants from some distance using chemical cues in the water. P. canaliculata, however, appears to be relatively generalist and indiscriminate that it is viewed to be particularly voracious compared to other Ampullariids. METHODOLOGY Sampling S nail samples were identified and collected from 2 countries in Asia, specifically in the Philippines and in China, where the P. canaliculata was introduced. In the Philippines; Los Banos (Dong et al. 011, p. 1778), 2 barangays in Tarlac (Brgy. Cabayaoasan, Paniqui and Brgy. Pance, Ramos) and Iloilo (Chichoco & Patdu 2012, p13), 44 snail samples were collected. And in China, specifically from Yuyao and Taizhou in Zhejiang province, Fuzhou in Fujian province, Guangzhou in Guangdong province, Nanning in Guangxi province, Kunming in Yunnan province, wherein a total of 120 samples were identified with the conserved sequence by Matsukura et al. (2008) and Pan et al. (2009) and then was collected (Dong et al. 2011, p. 1778).The snails were then stored, either by wrapping in paper, freezing or preserving it in ethanol, and brought into the respective labs in each country for the next steps; DNA extraction, PCR, electrophoresis and sequencing. DNA extraction The two studies used the phenol-c hloroform method (Bergallo et al. 2006) with an alternative of the Qiagen’s Dneasy extraction kit for China. The DNA concentration was determined spectrophotometrically and adjusted by a mini-gel method (Maniatis et al. , 1982) when the extracted DNA was enough, it was stored at 4oC to -20oC until needed. PCR and ElectrophoresisThe PCR method was basically done by choosing the right primers that will yield clearly reproduced bands and they tested the proper amounts and amplification effects of the components of PCR, which were the Mg2+, dNTP’s, DNA templates and polymerase, and the primers. After the mixture of the components and the DNA extracted, it was carried out in the thermocycler programmed for pre-denaturing at 94 °C for 3 min, followed by 26 cycles of 94 °C for 10-30s, 36-52 °C for 30-45s, extension of 65-72 °C for 60-90s, and the final extension for 5-7mins at 72 °C for final extension with 38-48 cycles.After which, the amplified products together w ith negative controls were run in electrophoresis to be separated and tested for contaminations, respectively. The products were then purified later on with the respective kits present in each lab. In the Philippines, the reaction was done with 2? L MgCl2, 5? L PCR buffer, 1? L dNTP, 2. 5 ? L of the primers, which were the LCO1490 and HCO2198, distilled H2O with 22. 75 ? L, 0. 25 Taq, and 10 ? L Q-buffer. The electrophoresis was done after the ethidium bromide staining (Maniatis et al. , 1982), analyzed through 1. % agarose gels and visualized under a transilluminator. In China, they made use of the ISSR-PCR analysis where they got four primers, which produced clearly reproduced bands, out of the 90 that was screened from the University of British Columbia’s primer set and the reactions were done with a volume of 20 ? l, containing 0. 2 mM of each dNTP, 1. 5 mM MgCl2, 0. 5 ? M primers, 1 U Taq polymerase and 10 ng DNA template, and also with the determination of the optimal r eaction system of ISSR for P. canaliculata (Dong et al. 2011, p. 1779).The products’ sizes after the amplification was estimated using DNA marker DL2000 and then was run in electrophoresis, which was done on 6% polyacrylamide gels, visualized by silver staining and then photographed (Li et al. , 2009). Sequencing/ Data analysis Chichioco and Patdu (2012) sent the DNA samples to the First Base Laboratory in Singapore for sequencing and the results were sent back to the DNA barcoding Laboratory after a week. The COI sequences were aligned in the BLAST, specifically the STADEN package version 1. 5. 3 and Bioedit Sequence Alignment Editor version 7. 0. 9. 0.Aside from the sequences sampled, other sequences and their haplotypes from the GenBank were also compared and matched. In Dong’s (2011) research, he made use of the RAPD fragments by labeling them into binary matrices, used them to get the similarity index, Sxy = 2nxy / nx+ ny, where nx and ny represent the number of R APD bands in individuals x and y, and nxy represents the number of shared bands between individuals, as stated by Nei and Li (1979), then averaging it across all the possible comparisons between individuals within a geographic sample to get the within samples similarity (Si).Between sample similarity corrected by within sample similarity Si and Sj of geographic samples i and j, respectively) is also calculated between pairs of individuals across samples i and j using the equation; S’ij = 1 + Sij – (Si and Sj)/2. Genetic distance between paired samples was then calculated as D’ij = 1- S’ij (Lynch, 1990). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In the Philippines (Chichioco & Patdu 2012, p. 18-31) The collected samples from Brgy. Cabayaoasan were found in the elevated parts of a rice paddy, specifically, it was a muddy substrate with decaying leaves from the rice plants and surrounding trees while those that was found in Brgy.Pance was in the muddy bottom of the shallow fis h pond in the roots of water lilies and grasses. The samples from the two barangays in Tarlac and Iloilo had relatively different colors and sizes. Those that were collected from Brgy. Cabayaoasan had the largest size and they are colored black while those in Brgy. Pance had brown in color and still, those in Iloilo had very small sized specimens and some of the specimens can be mistaken as Pila conica snails if not examined properly. Primers affect the amplification success greatly, since according to Hajibabaei (2005) a 95% success is necessary for barcoding.The primers LCO1490 (SENSE) and HCO2198 are generally used for the amplification of forward and reverse fragments from COI genes. The DNA samples were subjected to the PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE), and they produced single discrete bands that suggest that the fragments were homogenous and start and end at the same point (Reece 2004). The bands that were brighter and distinct are more appropriate for sequencing bec ause it means that the DNA fragments were well amplified. The best DNA’s were chosen and forwarded to the First Base Laboratory in Singapore for sequencing.At the return of the results, other sequenced DNA barcodes were also collected and was aligned and compared with the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) database. Fig 1. Alignment of the COI gene sequences of the Pomacea canaliculata (CPT1-5 from Brgy. Cabayaoasan, PRT 7,9,10 from Brgy. Pance, IICK & IIPC1,3 from Iloilo) from the Philippines using Bioedit Sequence Alignment and ClustalW multiple Alignment (Chichioco & Patdu 2012, p. 26) By aligning the sequenced data, it can be seen that there are both similarities and differences among the genetic make-up of the samples.The differences are due to localized gap, mismatch and non-correspondence of bases along the COI fragments as pointed out in fig. 2 Fig 2. Comparisons of the COI sequences of the P. canaliculata samples from 35bp- 120bp (Chichioco & Patdu 2012, p. 28 ) As emphasized in fig. 2, on the 55bp-58bp, a sequence from CPT1 was observed having (5’-AATT-3’) while all the others have (5’-GGTA-3’). Even though this is a noticeable difference and could have been caused by mutation or variation, the difference is still low enough and less that 1% difference to be considered significant.But on the other hand, the PCa1 sample had 36 different base pairs compared with the others, which was 5. 5% difference and is high enough and can be considered significant since it is ;4% divergent(Meyer and Paulay 2005). Then with a ~98% confidence, it could be said that PCa1 is from an independent evolutionary lineage and might indicate a divergence within or outside its population or might have occurred due to relationships and interactions among the other species.The introduction of the P. canaliculata to different places may have an effect on its intra- and interpopulation and might be why it has various genetic sequences altho ugh it goes against the theory that introduced species becomes a founding population in a new habitat thus they have a limited gene pool and as a consequence genetic drift, which removes variability since it affects all genes, and bottleneck might occur, which reduces the new species to have a reduced genetic diversity.To observe the genetic variability, the sequences collected were compared with those from GenBank with the use of the BLAST software. As a result from 81 COI barcodes and 55 haplotypes, the samples collected showed 99% and 100% similarities with the different haplotypes thus it showed that the species has a high diversity within the populations. The phylogeography within and among the species does not apply on the P. analiculata since intra- and interpopulation diversity was observed which was shown by the multiple introduction throughout the Philippines, hence the different times of the introduction contributed more to its diversity and it coincides with the migrant pool model that says that the introduced population acquires more genetic variability because of the multiple sources of genetically divergent populations as compared to that of the local species (Slatkin 1997, Sakal et al 2001). In China (Dong et al 2010) The chosen primers an average of 124. bands, since they generated a total of 498 bands, which ranged from 150-2500bp and qualifies them for barcoding, as seen in table 1. Among the 140 individuals, 435 bands were polymorphic which was different for each primer. In table 2, Nei’s gene diversity (H) varied between 0. 2612 and 0. 3340, with an average of 0. 3044, and arranged in a descending order the populations, LB ; KM ; NN ; FZ ; TZ ; GZ ; YY while the Shannon’s information index (I) ranged from 0. 3910 to 0. 4856, with an average of 0. 4499.At the species level, the values of Nei’s and Shannon’s showed the same trend as that of PPB. AMOVA analysis showed that there are highly significant (P ; 0. 001) genetic differences among the seven populations of P. canaliculata. The genetic diversity was mostly due to the differences within the population (92. 76%) while the rest was due to among populations. The analysis tells the same as that of the Nei’s and Shannon’s information, which says that there was a relatively high level of genetic differentiation among populations. CONCLUSIONGenetics of different species are studied by means of DNA barcoding, mostly of the COI gene in the mitochondria, to know the taxon of a species and to understand their trends and characteristics not only morphologically but also genetically. The diversity of a species can also be tested by means of DNA barcoding as seen in the study of the Pomacea canaliculata. The P. canaliculata was introduced in Asia for agricultural purposes and was seen for its benefits but not its drawbacks, which later on resulted to it being invasive and a pest for both humans and other species.To understand the P. can aliculata further, its diversity was studied by means of DNA barcoding and was analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively in the Philippines and China, respectively. Both the analysis showed the same outcome, wherein the results showed high levels of genetic diversity among populations. 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