Thursday, February 13, 2020

English Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

English - Assignment Example In this song, they proudly wear the discriminatory remarks as ornaments as if saying, ‘yes! We are who we are, what are can you do about it?’ The poems ‘Rhythm Blues’ and ‘Bang Bang Outishly’ by Amiri Baraka also talk about racisms and how dangerous they are for the growth of a healthy society. One poem says that â€Å"if capitalism won’t kill me, racism will† while the other stresses on â€Å"Let it be!† These poems are just more decent and more spiritual form of repelling racism. What the rap music have portrayed in the 90s in a very raw and unedited format, these poems by Baraka do the same only in a very gentle yet powerful way with subtle but meaningful choice of words. Dear John, Dear Coltrane by Michael Harper is also a poem talking about racial discrimination in North Carolina. But what is common in all of these poetic masterpieces is the fact that they all give a message to all humanity that they need to embrace people as they are. For instance, in his poem, at one point Harper takes up a question-answer format where he asks,† Why you so black?† and the a nswer come â€Å"cause I am† then again, â€Å"Why you so funky?† and the answer is â€Å"cause I am†. This is just another way of saying that black people are who they are, it is not a disease or something that they control. Being an African American in an identity and the world needs to take this community as they

Saturday, February 1, 2020

United states v. ziegler Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

United states v. ziegler - Essay Example However, his plea for suppression of his case was thrown out after it was argued that the office and an office computer does not belong to a person but it is an entity for the employer. The appellate argued that the employer pays the rent for the office and supply computer to his employee (Appeal from the United States District Court for the District of Montana). Nevertheless, after Ziegler was convicted he appealed the ruling in the Ninth Circuit court. The court overturned the decision of the lower court by arguing that Ziegler right were contravened when his office machine was searched without his notice or a search warrant. The judge said that Ziegler office attracted privacy as he did not share it with other employees. The court argued â€Å"Because Ziegler had a reasonable expectation of privacy in his office, any search of that space and the items located therein must comply with the Fourth Amendment† (Appeal from the United States District Court for the District of Montana). In conclusion, I do agree with the decision of the Ninth Circuit court that privacy in the office also is protected in the Fourth

Friday, January 24, 2020

Essay --

Fish constitutes a key source of animal protein for much of the world’s population.[1] Global fishery catches from marine ecosystems were highest in the mid-1980s and have been decreasing ever since despite increasing fishing effort [2]. Many of the world’s oceans wild fish stocks are completely exploited, so the capture fisheries are no longer sustainable. In 2004 the United Nations State of the World’s Fisheries report indicated that â€Å"52 percent of the oceans' wild fish stocks are fully exploited.[3]. In response to the decline of wild fisheries, many of the countries have put their effort to aquaculture. Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic plants and animals. FAO placed the global Aquaculture at 60 million tonnes in 2010,[1], which is about 41.2 % of the total fish production in the World. European Union (EU) countries contribute to 4% of the world aquaculture production. The value of EU aquaculture production was â‚ ¬ 3.1 billion for 1.26 million tonnes of production in 2010[4]. Available data show a growing gap – estimated at 8 million tonnes – between the level of consumption of seafood in the EU and the volume of captures from fisheries. Thus the European Union is giving a priority to expansion of Aquaculture in its Members countries. Because of the many issues involved aquaculture, there is a deliberate measu re by the EU to keep up policies which will ensure that the expansion of aquaculture is in done in an environmentally, socially and economically sustainable way by member countries. Here I discuss the general concepts of aquaculture and the significance of the EU aquaculture policies under the EU Union common fisheries policy (CFP) for the growth of aquaculture in the region. I also compare these policies with other ma... ...ave led to success of china aquaculture include availability of market, diverse and diversity of fish products. Prioritization of the aquaculture as important sector of the economy also contributes to the significance difference in production between the EU and china.[13] The major differences that can be seen between aquaculture in China and in the European union is that in china aquaculture production is more focused to production while the European Union focuses on the Environmental challenges. Conclusion The aquaculture sector has a strategic importance in contribution to food security and its growth is very promising especially under the blue growth economy. Despite the many challenges facing the aquaculture industry in the EU the growth can be realized if the polices and strategies under the CFP for aquaculture are implemented by the member countries. â€Æ' Essay -- Fish constitutes a key source of animal protein for much of the world’s population.[1] Global fishery catches from marine ecosystems were highest in the mid-1980s and have been decreasing ever since despite increasing fishing effort [2]. Many of the world’s oceans wild fish stocks are completely exploited, so the capture fisheries are no longer sustainable. In 2004 the United Nations State of the World’s Fisheries report indicated that â€Å"52 percent of the oceans' wild fish stocks are fully exploited.[3]. In response to the decline of wild fisheries, many of the countries have put their effort to aquaculture. Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic plants and animals. FAO placed the global Aquaculture at 60 million tonnes in 2010,[1], which is about 41.2 % of the total fish production in the World. European Union (EU) countries contribute to 4% of the world aquaculture production. The value of EU aquaculture production was â‚ ¬ 3.1 billion for 1.26 million tonnes of production in 2010[4]. Available data show a growing gap – estimated at 8 million tonnes – between the level of consumption of seafood in the EU and the volume of captures from fisheries. Thus the European Union is giving a priority to expansion of Aquaculture in its Members countries. Because of the many issues involved aquaculture, there is a deliberate measu re by the EU to keep up policies which will ensure that the expansion of aquaculture is in done in an environmentally, socially and economically sustainable way by member countries. Here I discuss the general concepts of aquaculture and the significance of the EU aquaculture policies under the EU Union common fisheries policy (CFP) for the growth of aquaculture in the region. I also compare these policies with other ma... ...ave led to success of china aquaculture include availability of market, diverse and diversity of fish products. Prioritization of the aquaculture as important sector of the economy also contributes to the significance difference in production between the EU and china.[13] The major differences that can be seen between aquaculture in China and in the European union is that in china aquaculture production is more focused to production while the European Union focuses on the Environmental challenges. Conclusion The aquaculture sector has a strategic importance in contribution to food security and its growth is very promising especially under the blue growth economy. Despite the many challenges facing the aquaculture industry in the EU the growth can be realized if the polices and strategies under the CFP for aquaculture are implemented by the member countries. â€Æ'

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Evaluation of Genetic Diversity of Golden Apple Snail, Pomacea Canaliculata

ABSTRACT Genetics is a trend these days especially that, DNA barcoding has been developed. DNA barcoding is an important tool in categorizing the taxa of different species and it tells so much about the species’ traits, including genetic diversity. The Pomacea canaliculata was introduced in different parts of Asia and had been an invasive species and a pest in different ecosystems ever since the introduction. In understanding this species of snails, samples were collected, DNA’s were extracted, undergone PCR and electrophoresis, and was sequenced and analyzed.The analysis was qualitative In the Philippines while quantitative in China. In the Philippines, the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) genes was used and compared among the species collected and when it was sequenced, it showed differences due to localized gap, mismatch and non-correspondence of bases. And in China, the diversity was analyzed by means of Nei’s gene diversity, Shannon’s information in dex, percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB) an AMOVA anlysis. Both the quantitative and qualitative showed that there was diversification within and among the populations of these snails.INTRODUCTION Genetics is the study of the genes, and the heredity and variation of individuals. Understanding the genome, which is the complete set of chromosomes or the entire genotype of an individual, is important because it helps in the taxonomy of species, especially nowadays wherein advancements in science needs more specific information, and that basing on morphological features is not enough. Life is specified by genomes which contain all the biological information which is encoded in its deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and divided into units or the genes.The genes are the blueprint for life because it is the particulate determiner of hereditary traits. Hence, DNA barcoding became a trend for scientists and researchers for the understanding of the different variations in the traits of different o rganisms. The golden apple snails (Pomacea canaliculata) originated from the South America, Central America, the West Indies and the Southern USA (Pain 1972) and was spread in the past decades to the different parts of Southeast Asia, namely Philippines, China, Thailand, Cambodia, Hong Kong, Indonesia and Japan.The introduction of the P. canaliculata without prior studies caused damages to the different plants and it became an invasive species which resulted to becoming pests to humans and competitors to other local snails, example of which are those from the genus Pili. The P. canaliculata was observed to have different growth and reproduction in different parts of Asia, together with their external characteristics due to the different habitats and environmental conditions (Keawjam, 1986 and 1987), therefore there is the possibility to misidentify two sympatric species as one.On the other hand allopatric populations inhabiting different habitats may show ecomorphological variations and questionable species status and it was also suggested that the golden apple snails had high adaptability hence it was easier for them to form new populations (Dong et al. 2011). The understanding of the genomes of different species is a trend for scientists these days but the information about the different mollusks is still limited. The basic information on the number of species and/or population is of help for conservation programs (Carvalho and Hauser, 1994) and for building appropriate management schemes.In contribution, the studies aims are to evaluate the genetic diversity of the golden apple snail population in Asia, namely, Philippines and China via molecularly characterizing the P. canaliculata and to find different ways of analyzing the gathered data from the sequenced DNA of the said species. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Genetic diversity (Reed 2005) The significance of genetic diversity arose from two necessities: genetic diversity is required for populations to evo lve in response to environmental changes and heterozygosity levels are linked directly to reduce population fitness via inbreeding depression.The amount of genetic variation a population contains is predicted to correlate with current fitness and, in the case of heritabilities (which can remain high or even increase despite severe reductions in population size) with evolutionary potential. This correlation between fitness and levels of genetic variation, however, may be weak or nonexistent due to the neutrality of molecular markers used in estimating heterozygosity, nonadditive genetic variation and the purging of deleterious alleles because of increased selection against homozygotes.There is a body of literature that suggests that allozyme heterozygosity is a good measure of population fitness and adaptive potential. Others caution though that such molecular genetic data generally reflect only a small portion of genome and thus may not be indicator of adaptive genetic differences. But molecular markers may be useful for assessing the extent of genetic drift. Moreover, deleterious alleles, in mutation-selection balance, are responsible for at least half of the genetic variation in fitness.Selection has the tendency to purge the population of the deleterious recessive alleles which in theory creates inbred populations with a higher fitness than their outbreed progenitor. In other words, inbred populations with less genetic diversity would have higher fitness if the population is not kept small enough for a long enough to allow the fixation of deleterious alleles to occur. Fitness and future adaptability are reduced in smaller populations of plants and animals due to drift and inbreeding depression.Commonly used surrogates for fitness such as heritabilities, heterozygosity, and population size, significantly correlate with fitness and explain 15-20 % of the variation in fitness. Correlations suggest that many populations have reduced fitness as a result of inbre eding depression and genetic drift. There is much fuss and concern thus, over genetic variation because of the fact that endangered species typically have lower levels of heterozygosity and the loss of adaptive genetic variation and inbreeding depression puts wildlife populations at an increased risk of extinction.Finally, this increase occurs as a result of the reduction of productive fitness because of inbreeding depression or due to the failure of tracking the change in abiotic and biotic environment of the population as a result of the loss of genetic variation through drift. DNA barcoding (Moritz & Cicero 2004) At the very core, the purpose of DNA barcoding is for large scale screening of one or a few reference genes in order to assign unknown individuals to species and enhance discovery of new species.In the hope of developing a comprehensive database of sequences that will serve as a comparison tool to sequences from sampled individuals, proponents used DNA barcoding. There i s, however, nothing new with DNA barcoding as it is an offshoot of the use molecular markers for the very same purpose except, in DNA barcoding, there is an increased scale and proposed standardization. The selection of one or more reference genes characterizes standardization, with regards to microbial community and in stimulating large scale phylogenetic analyses if of proven value, though whether or not one gene fits all remain to be a question.Presently, most methods of DNA barcoding are tree-based and can fall into two broadly defined classes. One class is the distance-based, wherein it is based on the degree of DNA sequence variation within and between species. This kind of approach converts DNA sequences into genetic distances and then uses these distances to establish identification schemes. It further defines a similarity threshold below which a DNA barcode is assigned to a known or a new species. There is also the mention by several authors of a â€Å"barcoding gap† , a distance-gap between intra- and interspecific sequences, for species identification.However, the distance-based approach seems to be ill suited as a general means for species identification and the discovery of new species. One reason is that substitution rates of mitochondrion DNA vary between and within species and between different groups of species. The varied substitution rates can result in broad overlaps of intra- and interspecific distances, and hinder the accurate assignment of query sequences. Another class which is the monophyly-based requires the recovery of species as discrete clades (monophyly) on a phylogenetic tree and is used to assign unknown taxa to a known or new species.Similarly, some issues complicate the use of monophyly in a barcoding framework. For example, the long-recognized problem of incomplete lineage sorting will yield gene genealogies that may differ in topology from locus to locus. The recently divergent taxa may not be reciprocally monophyletic due to lack of time needed to coalesce. In addition, the gene trees are not necessarily congruent with species trees, and the monophyly, while a discrete criterion is arbitrary with respect to taxonomic level.Moreover, there is a recently applied new technique that has been proposed as an alternative to tree-based approaches for DNA barcoding, the so called character-based DNA barcode method, which is based on the fundamental concept that members of a given taxonomic group share attributes that are absent from comparable groups. It is the kind of method that characterizes species through a unique combination of diagnostic characters rather than genetic distances. The four standard nucleotides (A,T,C,G) if found in fixed states in one species can be used as diagnostics for identifying that species.This way, species boundaries can be defined by a diagnostic set of characters which can be increased to any level of resolution by applying multiple genes. Presently, character-based DNA b arcode method has been proved useful for species identification and discovery of several taxa. In the view that single-gene sequence should be the primary identifier of species, a contention arises that if that is the case then there’ll be a real need to connect different life history stages and increase the precision and efficiency of field studies involving diverse and difficult-to-identify taxa.Although the DNA barcoding community has put emphasis on the importance of large-scale sequence database within the existing framework and practice of systematics, it should be bore in mind that DNA barcoding is not the primary answer in resolving the tree of life. Furthermore, as much as the term â€Å"DNA barcoding† appealing, it implies, however, that each species has a fixed and invariant characteristic. But this kind of implication renders unrest to the minds of evolutionary biologists.In evaluating thus, the promise and pitfall of DNA barcoding, two areas of application should be distinguished: the molecular diagnostics of individuals relative to described taxa and DNA-led discovery of new species. And although there is little doubt that large-scale and standardized sequencing, when integrated with existing taxonomic practice, can contribute significantly to the challenges of identifying individuals and increasing the rate of discovering biological diversity as presented by this study, the general utility of DNA barcoding still requires further scrutiny.PCR (Moore 2005) In rapidly copying a selected template sequence from a DNA mixture in vitro, PCR offers a wide range of applications such as sequence detection and isolation for research, forensics and species identification through the PCR itself and in combination with other techniques. PCR's new technique uses flourescent probes to monitor the amounted product at end of every cycle and PCR machines look for the cycle at which the can readily detect flourescence.PCR is also being used to monitor RNA through the addition of reverse transcriptase enzyme at the beginning to generate DNA template. In addition, there are now new applications of PCR like single nucleotide polymorphism detection and screening. Cytochrome Oxydase subunit 1 (COI) (Buhay 2009) COI plays a significant role in documenting biodiversity and remains to be the choice for phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies. COI is a mitochondrial protein-coding gene which is a widely accepted marker for molecular identification across diverse taxa.Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have a relatively fast mutation rate, thus they result in significant differences between species. With respect to this, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene with ~700bp was proposed to be a potential barcode or marker for molecular identification across various taxa. Furthermore, COI is a protein coding gene that has an open reading frame and in thecase of barcoding, COI can be highly divergent from the actual COI sequences which may cause major problems because species identification is based on sequence similarity.Pomacea canaliculata (Cowie 2002) The Pomacea canaliculata belongs to the family Ampullariidae. Its structure appears to have a slight dimorphism in shape of aperture and operculum. Females have broader mouth and concave operculum while convex in male. In terms of reproduction, oviposition often takes place at night or at early morning or evening about 24 hrs after copulation up to two weeks after mating (occurs three times per week) which occurs anytime of the day or night although there may be some diurnal rhythm.On each oviposition occasion a single clutch is laid of highly variable egg number. Moreover, the interval among successive ovipositions for p. canaliculata has been reported to be about five days and hatching generally takes place about two weeks after oviposition. The P. canaliculata breeds only during summer and grows into maturity in less than two months. P. canaliculata is s aid to be prolific and hence has rapid succession of generations which leads to rapid population expansion.They relatively inhabit still water and in water temperatures above 32 degree Celsius, it has been observed that the mortality of p. canaliculata is high. Whereas in low temperature p. canaliculata can survive 15-20 days at 0 degree Celsius, 2 days at -3 degree Celsius but only 6 hrs at -6 degree Celsius. And it is sufficiently tolerant of sea water to survive long enough to be carried by currents from one stream mouth to another, thereby expanding its distribution. P. canaliculata shows preferences among food plants.Its rate of growth has a direct correlation with its feeding on the preferred plant. Moreover, it is able to detect its food plants from some distance using chemical cues in the water. P. canaliculata, however, appears to be relatively generalist and indiscriminate that it is viewed to be particularly voracious compared to other Ampullariids. METHODOLOGY Sampling S nail samples were identified and collected from 2 countries in Asia, specifically in the Philippines and in China, where the P. canaliculata was introduced. In the Philippines; Los Banos (Dong et al. 011, p. 1778), 2 barangays in Tarlac (Brgy. Cabayaoasan, Paniqui and Brgy. Pance, Ramos) and Iloilo (Chichoco & Patdu 2012, p13), 44 snail samples were collected. And in China, specifically from Yuyao and Taizhou in Zhejiang province, Fuzhou in Fujian province, Guangzhou in Guangdong province, Nanning in Guangxi province, Kunming in Yunnan province, wherein a total of 120 samples were identified with the conserved sequence by Matsukura et al. (2008) and Pan et al. (2009) and then was collected (Dong et al. 2011, p. 1778).The snails were then stored, either by wrapping in paper, freezing or preserving it in ethanol, and brought into the respective labs in each country for the next steps; DNA extraction, PCR, electrophoresis and sequencing. DNA extraction The two studies used the phenol-c hloroform method (Bergallo et al. 2006) with an alternative of the Qiagen’s Dneasy extraction kit for China. The DNA concentration was determined spectrophotometrically and adjusted by a mini-gel method (Maniatis et al. , 1982) when the extracted DNA was enough, it was stored at 4oC to -20oC until needed. PCR and ElectrophoresisThe PCR method was basically done by choosing the right primers that will yield clearly reproduced bands and they tested the proper amounts and amplification effects of the components of PCR, which were the Mg2+, dNTP’s, DNA templates and polymerase, and the primers. After the mixture of the components and the DNA extracted, it was carried out in the thermocycler programmed for pre-denaturing at 94 °C for 3 min, followed by 26 cycles of 94 °C for 10-30s, 36-52 °C for 30-45s, extension of 65-72 °C for 60-90s, and the final extension for 5-7mins at 72 °C for final extension with 38-48 cycles.After which, the amplified products together w ith negative controls were run in electrophoresis to be separated and tested for contaminations, respectively. The products were then purified later on with the respective kits present in each lab. In the Philippines, the reaction was done with 2? L MgCl2, 5? L PCR buffer, 1? L dNTP, 2. 5 ? L of the primers, which were the LCO1490 and HCO2198, distilled H2O with 22. 75 ? L, 0. 25 Taq, and 10 ? L Q-buffer. The electrophoresis was done after the ethidium bromide staining (Maniatis et al. , 1982), analyzed through 1. % agarose gels and visualized under a transilluminator. In China, they made use of the ISSR-PCR analysis where they got four primers, which produced clearly reproduced bands, out of the 90 that was screened from the University of British Columbia’s primer set and the reactions were done with a volume of 20 ? l, containing 0. 2 mM of each dNTP, 1. 5 mM MgCl2, 0. 5 ? M primers, 1 U Taq polymerase and 10 ng DNA template, and also with the determination of the optimal r eaction system of ISSR for P. canaliculata (Dong et al. 2011, p. 1779).The products’ sizes after the amplification was estimated using DNA marker DL2000 and then was run in electrophoresis, which was done on 6% polyacrylamide gels, visualized by silver staining and then photographed (Li et al. , 2009). Sequencing/ Data analysis Chichioco and Patdu (2012) sent the DNA samples to the First Base Laboratory in Singapore for sequencing and the results were sent back to the DNA barcoding Laboratory after a week. The COI sequences were aligned in the BLAST, specifically the STADEN package version 1. 5. 3 and Bioedit Sequence Alignment Editor version 7. 0. 9. 0.Aside from the sequences sampled, other sequences and their haplotypes from the GenBank were also compared and matched. In Dong’s (2011) research, he made use of the RAPD fragments by labeling them into binary matrices, used them to get the similarity index, Sxy = 2nxy / nx+ ny, where nx and ny represent the number of R APD bands in individuals x and y, and nxy represents the number of shared bands between individuals, as stated by Nei and Li (1979), then averaging it across all the possible comparisons between individuals within a geographic sample to get the within samples similarity (Si).Between sample similarity corrected by within sample similarity Si and Sj of geographic samples i and j, respectively) is also calculated between pairs of individuals across samples i and j using the equation; S’ij = 1 + Sij – (Si and Sj)/2. Genetic distance between paired samples was then calculated as D’ij = 1- S’ij (Lynch, 1990). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In the Philippines (Chichioco & Patdu 2012, p. 18-31) The collected samples from Brgy. Cabayaoasan were found in the elevated parts of a rice paddy, specifically, it was a muddy substrate with decaying leaves from the rice plants and surrounding trees while those that was found in Brgy.Pance was in the muddy bottom of the shallow fis h pond in the roots of water lilies and grasses. The samples from the two barangays in Tarlac and Iloilo had relatively different colors and sizes. Those that were collected from Brgy. Cabayaoasan had the largest size and they are colored black while those in Brgy. Pance had brown in color and still, those in Iloilo had very small sized specimens and some of the specimens can be mistaken as Pila conica snails if not examined properly. Primers affect the amplification success greatly, since according to Hajibabaei (2005) a 95% success is necessary for barcoding.The primers LCO1490 (SENSE) and HCO2198 are generally used for the amplification of forward and reverse fragments from COI genes. The DNA samples were subjected to the PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE), and they produced single discrete bands that suggest that the fragments were homogenous and start and end at the same point (Reece 2004). The bands that were brighter and distinct are more appropriate for sequencing bec ause it means that the DNA fragments were well amplified. The best DNA’s were chosen and forwarded to the First Base Laboratory in Singapore for sequencing.At the return of the results, other sequenced DNA barcodes were also collected and was aligned and compared with the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) database. Fig 1. Alignment of the COI gene sequences of the Pomacea canaliculata (CPT1-5 from Brgy. Cabayaoasan, PRT 7,9,10 from Brgy. Pance, IICK & IIPC1,3 from Iloilo) from the Philippines using Bioedit Sequence Alignment and ClustalW multiple Alignment (Chichioco & Patdu 2012, p. 26) By aligning the sequenced data, it can be seen that there are both similarities and differences among the genetic make-up of the samples.The differences are due to localized gap, mismatch and non-correspondence of bases along the COI fragments as pointed out in fig. 2 Fig 2. Comparisons of the COI sequences of the P. canaliculata samples from 35bp- 120bp (Chichioco & Patdu 2012, p. 28 ) As emphasized in fig. 2, on the 55bp-58bp, a sequence from CPT1 was observed having (5’-AATT-3’) while all the others have (5’-GGTA-3’). Even though this is a noticeable difference and could have been caused by mutation or variation, the difference is still low enough and less that 1% difference to be considered significant.But on the other hand, the PCa1 sample had 36 different base pairs compared with the others, which was 5. 5% difference and is high enough and can be considered significant since it is ;4% divergent(Meyer and Paulay 2005). Then with a ~98% confidence, it could be said that PCa1 is from an independent evolutionary lineage and might indicate a divergence within or outside its population or might have occurred due to relationships and interactions among the other species.The introduction of the P. canaliculata to different places may have an effect on its intra- and interpopulation and might be why it has various genetic sequences altho ugh it goes against the theory that introduced species becomes a founding population in a new habitat thus they have a limited gene pool and as a consequence genetic drift, which removes variability since it affects all genes, and bottleneck might occur, which reduces the new species to have a reduced genetic diversity.To observe the genetic variability, the sequences collected were compared with those from GenBank with the use of the BLAST software. As a result from 81 COI barcodes and 55 haplotypes, the samples collected showed 99% and 100% similarities with the different haplotypes thus it showed that the species has a high diversity within the populations. The phylogeography within and among the species does not apply on the P. analiculata since intra- and interpopulation diversity was observed which was shown by the multiple introduction throughout the Philippines, hence the different times of the introduction contributed more to its diversity and it coincides with the migrant pool model that says that the introduced population acquires more genetic variability because of the multiple sources of genetically divergent populations as compared to that of the local species (Slatkin 1997, Sakal et al 2001). In China (Dong et al 2010) The chosen primers an average of 124. bands, since they generated a total of 498 bands, which ranged from 150-2500bp and qualifies them for barcoding, as seen in table 1. Among the 140 individuals, 435 bands were polymorphic which was different for each primer. In table 2, Nei’s gene diversity (H) varied between 0. 2612 and 0. 3340, with an average of 0. 3044, and arranged in a descending order the populations, LB ; KM ; NN ; FZ ; TZ ; GZ ; YY while the Shannon’s information index (I) ranged from 0. 3910 to 0. 4856, with an average of 0. 4499.At the species level, the values of Nei’s and Shannon’s showed the same trend as that of PPB. AMOVA analysis showed that there are highly significant (P ; 0. 001) genetic differences among the seven populations of P. canaliculata. The genetic diversity was mostly due to the differences within the population (92. 76%) while the rest was due to among populations. The analysis tells the same as that of the Nei’s and Shannon’s information, which says that there was a relatively high level of genetic differentiation among populations. CONCLUSIONGenetics of different species are studied by means of DNA barcoding, mostly of the COI gene in the mitochondria, to know the taxon of a species and to understand their trends and characteristics not only morphologically but also genetically. The diversity of a species can also be tested by means of DNA barcoding as seen in the study of the Pomacea canaliculata. The P. canaliculata was introduced in Asia for agricultural purposes and was seen for its benefits but not its drawbacks, which later on resulted to it being invasive and a pest for both humans and other species.To understand the P. can aliculata further, its diversity was studied by means of DNA barcoding and was analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively in the Philippines and China, respectively. Both the analysis showed the same outcome, wherein the results showed high levels of genetic diversity among populations. Because invasive species tends to give a negative feedback to those species in the local area, it is important to understand these alien species and to know how diverse they are so that proper management of these species could be done. REFERENCES Barker, G.M. 2002. Molluscs as Crop Pests. UK: CABI Publishing. (pp. 147-182) Buhay, Jennifer E. 2009. ‘‘COI-like’’ Sequences are Becoming Problematic in Molecular Systematic and DNA Barcoding Studies. Journal of Crustacean Biology 29(1): 96–110 Burns, George W. , Bottino, Paul J. 1989. The science of genetics 6th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Chichioco, Monique Faye & Patdu, Edel Marie. 2012. DNA barcoding of Pomacea canaliculata and Pila conica using cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) and small subunit (ssu) ribosomal (r) RNA barcodes (Undergraduate thesis).Main Library, University of the Philippines Baguio, Baguio City. Cowie, R. H. 2002. Apple snails (Ampullariidae) as agricultural pests: their biology, impacts and management. In: Molluscs as Crop Pests (ed. G. M. Barker), p. 145-192. CABI Publishing, Wallingford. Dodson, Edward O. 1956. Genetics: The Modern Science of Heredity. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company. Dong, S. , Shentu, X. , Pan, Y. , Yu, X. , Wang, H. 2011. Evaluation of genetic diversity in the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck), from different geographical populations in China by inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR).African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 10(10), 1777-1783. Mendoza, Monica P & Serra, Karen Mae S. 2011. Mitochondrial DNA barcoding of Pomacea canaliculata and Pila conica (Undergraduate thesis). Main Library, University of the Philippines Bagu io, Baguio City. Moore, Pete. 2005. PCR: Replicating Success. Nature 435, 235-238. Moritz, C. , and Cicero,C.. 2004. DNA barcoding: promise and pitfalls. PLoS Biology 2(10), e354, 1529-1531. Reed, D. H. , Frankham, R. 2005. Correlation between Fitness and Genetic Diversity.Conservation Biology. Conservation Biology 17(1), 230-237. Wang, Xu-Mei. 2010. Optimization of DNA isolation, ISSR-PCR system and primers screening of genuine species of rhubarb, an important herbal medicine in China. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 4(10), 904-908. Zou, S. , Li, Q. , Kong, L. , Yu, H. , Zheng, X. 2011. Comparing the Usefulness of Distance, Monophyly and Character-Based DNA Barcoding Methods in Species Identification: A Case Study of Neogastropoda. PLoS ONE 4(10), e26619.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder - 1656 Words

In the words of Albert Einstein, â€Å"Everybody is a genius. But if you judge a fish by its ability to climb a tree, it will live its whole life believing that it is stupid†. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder is one of the most common well- known behavioral disorders, that is defined by the DSM as having a â€Å"persistent pattern of hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention, for at least six months and it is so severe that it interferers with your development†. As of 2013, it affects 11 percent of children between the ages of 4-17 and is more prevalent in boys than in girls. (http://www.additudemag.com/adhd/article/688.html) ADHD with aggression is very common as well. The aggression aspect can be shown through ADHD being in combination†¦show more content†¦Under the subcategory of CBT, Behavioral Therapy, stands alone its own league of being a positive treatment for ADHD children both with aggression and without aggression. Behavioral Therapies help c hange potentially destructive behaviors.(http://www.healthline.com) It benefits ADHD children by giving them the proper coping skills they need to overcome or better deal with the things in their lives that seen to be out of control. (citation here) In regards to medications for ADHD children and the negative side effects that are associated with them, they tend to worsen as the dosage of medication is increased. Current research is being done on alternative treatments that can be effective in the reduction of ADHD symptoms and in areas of aggression, when present in ADHD children. The research being done on this topic is important for the field of Psychology because it has the ability to close the gaps that past research left open and promote awareness to the disorder. The question that will be addressed in my literature review is if Behavioral Therapies are an effective alternative treatment for ADHD children, with self-control issues, to help lower aggressive symptoms. This lit erature review will show evidence that backs up the assumption that Behavior Therapy is a good alternate treatment for ADHD children, will review some of the limitations behind this assumption and provide information about the direction that future

Monday, December 30, 2019

Brave New World as a Dystopia - 821 Words

A Perfect Imperfection A utopian society is a society in which everything is absolutely perfect; a society in which everyone is happy with their life. The society in Brave New World by Aldous Huxley is set up by the World Controllers to be such. However, the society itself is just the opposite of a utopian society: a dystopian society. Even though everything appears to be perfect for everyone, the hidden truth reveals a different reality. The society in Brave New World is a dystopian society as exhibited by the lack of reality, freedom, and identity. A primary example of how the society in Brave New World is a dystopian society is the lack of reality in the novel. This is exemplified by the use of soma, a drug that takes the user†¦show more content†¦These castes determine the person’s role in society, with Alpha being the equivalent of a noble of the society and Epilsons being the peasants. These roles are assigned during Bokanovsky’s Process by such acts as d epriving the developing embryo of the proper oxygen (6-7). Because of this, everyone is thought of as a member of a caste, not an individual. An Epilson will always be an Epilson, with no chance of being a standout individual in society. This lack of advancement destroys the sense of personal achievement and self-earned identity. Overall, the society in Brave New World is clearly a dystopia. The citizens are clouded by the society into thinking that they are happy. The lack of reality portrays a fake happiness that is surrounding the citizens. Also, the lack of both freedom and individuality take away what makes a person unique and destroy any chance at true happiness. The society believes they are truly happy only because it is what they are conditioned to believe. This false happiness makes the society what it truly is: a perfectShow MoreRelatedBrave New World - Dystopia Essay1460 Words   |  6 Pagesthe last century; each ranging from one extreme society to the next. A dystopia , â€Å"A futuristic, imagined universe in which oppressive societal control and the illusion of a perfect society are maintained through corporate, bureaucratic, technological, moral, or totalitarian control,†[1] through an exaggerated worst-case scenario, criticizes about current trends, societal norms, or political systems. The society in Brave New World by Aldous Huxley is divided in a caste system, in which humans are notRead MoreBrave New World - Utopia or Dystopia?783 Words   |  4 Pagesand a dystopia, however Brave New World by Aldous Huxley could be seen as either. There are many aspects of this society which are perfect and completely cancel out many problems with our real world, nevertheless along with these are effects which could be seen as the opposite. This essay will discuss these aspects and effects and whether the Brave New World society is a utopia or a dystopia. A utopian society is one which is perfect (Mastin (2008), What is a Utopia?). In the case of Brave New World:Read MoreRevealing The Dystopia Of Brave New World1702 Words   |  7 PagesRevealing The Dystopia Of Brave New World Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World reflects the fallacies of utopian happiness when a totalitarian government artificially controls a society. Controllers of the â€Å"World State† in Brave New World strategically allow their citizens to use designer drugs, mainly Soma, to create an unintelligent and unquestioning population that is segregated into five different social classes. However, there are some rebels in the midst of the World State that don’t stand trueRead MoreBrave New World: Utopia or Dystopia2448 Words   |  10 Pagesâ€Å"Brave New World† utopia or dystopia? The novel Brave New World has often been characterized as dystopia rather than utopia. Nevertheless, the superficial overview of the novel implies a utopian society, especially if judging by what the Controller said to John, the Savage: People are happy; they get what they want, and they never want what they cant get. Theyre well off; theyre safe; theyre never ill; theyre not afraid of death; theyre blissfully ignorant of passion andRead MoreBrave New World, Representative Of A Utopia Or A Dystopia?2190 Words   |  9 PagesAccording to critics, is â€Å"Brave New World â€Å"representative of a utopia or a dystopia? Throughout history, many have wondered about what the future may hold for mankind. Will there be war or peace, success or failure, unity or disunity? One of the most asked questions, society can ever form a utopia. There are countless theories and opinions as to what will truly become of this planet in the years to come. As a result, there has been a tremendous amount of works dedicated to the concept of a futureRead MoreAldous Huxley s Brave New World1310 Words   |  6 PagesAldous Huxley’s Brave New World is a fascinating and analytical work of fiction warning society of the possibility of a future world state eerily similar to the modern world. It could be argued by the fictional citizens and many others that the World State is in fact utopian. Constant happiness, fulfillment, and instant gratification. However, Brave New World clearly depicts a deteriorating dystopian society. Although by the World State’s citizens it is seen as an impeccable, expedient utopian so cietyRead MoreAnalysis Of Aldous Huxley s Brave New World908 Words   |  4 Pagesthe dystopia, Huxley delivers this quote through World Controller Mustapha Mond, which seems to contradict Henry Ford due to Ford originally stating it himself. Mond continues to lecture the students with enthusiasm and aspect on the self-destruction of the world of the reader and the construction of the World State, the only option to bedlam. In doing so, Huxley outlines the angst-ridden demise of the common world of egalitarianism and individual freedom and the people of the brave new world bringRead More Negative Effects of Technology Depicted in Aldous Huxleys Brave New World1100 Words   |  5 PagesNegative Effects of Technology Depicted in Aldous Huxleys Brave New World Imagine a life where the technology is so great that no one ever has to be worried about being sad or bothered by all the day to day stress. In Brave New World published in 1932, Aldous Huxley brings the reader into the future of London to see just what technology can do to a society. As the novel opens, the reader learns about how the futuristic London is a Utopia, what life is like, and all about the great technologicalRead MoreComparison Essay Between 1984 and Bnw1285 Words   |  6 PagesDystopias: Why they can be both Pleasant and Disturbing Human interests play a major role in the agreeability of a society. Dystopias, in some cases, can actually be seen as utopias if one has been conditioned to believe it is, as seen in Aldous Huxleys Brave New World. However, if conditioning fails, or, is not exercised, even utopias can very easily become dystopias, such as in George Orwells 1984. Therefore, what one views as a dystopia, another could easily see as a utopia, and vice versaRead MoreA New Dystopia By George Orwell1372 Words   |  6 PagesA New Dystopia Who will reign supreme; Aldous Huxley or George Orwell? Ever since these two authors released their dystopian novels over 50 years ago, both authors and avid fans have argued as to which dystopia will take over our society. Will it be the brute force, boot and gun approach of Orwell s dystopia or the all-loving, drug-accepting society that Huxley illustrates? If you take a closer look, a mix of both dystopias is quite apparent in our society today; we are living in our own modern

Sunday, December 22, 2019

The United States A Growing Power - 1849 Words

The United States: A Growing Power The United States focused on itself taking the years after the Civil War to rebuild and to become a stronger society. The slaves being granted there freedom, the rise in technology helping business to make more money, and yet women weren’t able to vote. The Reconstruction faltered and a bigger disappointment in relation to women, since the Fourteenth amendment only commented on males not females. Society as a whole were going through changes, from family dynamics, progressive reform, federal government passing laws that affected all, and international relations fluctuating. Families have always played an important part in society, from having a son to carry on the family name, having multiple children to help on the farm, to the parents having someone to take care of them when they are unable to do so in their old age. Majority of families before the 1900’s consisted of the husband working and the wife keeping the house along with rais ing the children. After the 1900’s though the family dynamic would be changing, the large fluctuation of clerical positions were up for grabs and while it was tradition for women to stay home, they seemed to be made for typing. The single woman were more prominent than ever before taking on what society considered gender specific roles such as, nurses, secretaries, librarians, and teaching. While the majority of society believed as Theodore Roosevelt did â€Å"the greatest thing for any woman is toShow MoreRelatedDeclining and Growing Powers and Empires in Europe and the Rise of United States of America1454 Words   |  6 PagesDeclining and Growing Powers and Empires in Europe and the Rise of United States of America The structure of the international system differed in 1914 from that off 1880 because there was a major shift of power in Europe between Great Britain and Germany. Germany was challenging Great Britains power outright while the United States was indirectly challenging Britain on an economic scale. This essay will demonstrate how a countrys geography directly influences its economicRead MoreThe Future Of Us China Relations Essay1654 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"China Rising† is a non-arguable fact and the one of the most important subject in the twenty-first century. The rise of China is a relative threat to the neighbor regions or other great powers. Further, some scholars also comment that China either will replace or has already superseded the United State as the world’s only superpower. China’s growth is too rapid and massive that other nations have limited or no opportunity to compete with it. By using international relations theories to analyze US-ChinaRead MoreChin A Dominant World Player1013 Words   |  5 Pagesrising in its political power. China’s exponential economic growth and increased international political activity increases its chances in increasing its power, which also increases its influence on other countries. As China continues to expand in its power, wester n power has steadily began to decline; with the recession hitting the United States in 2008, the States have been declining as a prominent world power. As China begins to gain more power and the Unite States’ power staggers, there are twoRead MoreIndia s Economic Hegemony Over The World1292 Words   |  6 Pagesover the world. After World War Two, the economic hegemonic power shifted to the United States, and the United States has sustained this power ever since. Today, the United States remains the global economic hegemonic power with a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) almost double that of any other country, with a 2013 GDP of $16.8 trillion. Unchallenged since the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1992, the United States has enjoyed a period of unipolarity in global economic affairsRead MoreThe United States Of America Essay1694 Words   |  7 Pagessooner than many people think. The United States of America is facing problems a lot of people a re either unaware of or just dont think its a big deal. Most of america think that our economy and government is in alright financial shape, That may not be the case though. America is in bad shape and it seems to be going down hill. America is declining in world power as well and this is just another factor leading to a crash in the future. Other nations are growing a lot more powerful than they haveRead MoreCalifornia Is The Highest Amount Of Electoral Voters1552 Words   |  7 Pages In United State, there are two big political parties which are the Republican and the Democrat. They have been dominating the country as majority of the President of the United States are from these two parties. In history, we know that California was the 31st state of the United States and was admitted official on September 9, 1850. California is the most populated states in the United States which is located at the West Coast of the United States. Due to this, the politic in California has aRead MoreLiberalism Approach of China Essay969 Words   |  4 Pageswill facilitate the growth and development of the states. Thus many of the policies of a state are in accordance to its current state preferences and dependence with other countries. Despite of China’s rising power and its expanding aims, it must be taken into consideration that the emergence of rising powers have to be unified with other major powers to combat common dangers such as terrorism as it inflicts every state regardless of its power. Therefore, fundamental values, beliefs, needs andRead MoreDownfall Of The Austro Hungarian Empire1725 Words   |  7 Pagesimperial nations and their colonies in the Twentieth century marked the beginning of the end of a multipolar power system that once influenced the world. This inevitable outcome would be the result of the attitudes held by the colonial powers, the ideologies set by the anti-imperialist forces, and the role of external powers. The factors of polit ics and military actions would also catalyze the power shift by the end of WWII. Early in the twentieth century we would find the collapse of four large empires;Read MoreMinority Research Paper1715 Words   |  7 Pagesgroups in the United States and what each one prefers. African Americans †¢ The total numbers in the US is 42 million (â€Å"United States Census Bureau†). †¢ African Americans make up 13.6% of the total US population (â€Å"United States Census Bureau†). †¢ The rate of growth for this minority group from 2000 to 2010 was 15.4% (â€Å"United States Census Bureau†). †¢ The average household size is 2.7 (â€Å"United States Census Bureau†). †¢ The average age for African Americans is 32.1 (â€Å"United States Census Bureau†)Read MoreJohn Locke s Influence On The United States1162 Words   |  5 Pageswas one of the most revolutionary political thinkers of the seventeenth century, and possibly of all time. His ideas regarding natural rights had major effects on almost every western society, most notably the United States. Locke’s ideas were crucial in the crafting of the United States Constitution and more importantly, the creation of American culture, both social, governmental, and economic. Locke was the inspiration for the three branch government system in America along with the representative

Saturday, December 14, 2019

Lion King Free Essays

Austin Klein Professor Fleming English 15s October 2, 2012 Lions: King of the Jungle and Disney Movies Each generation has its unanswerable mysteries. What happened to Roanoke? Where did Amelia Earhart’s plane go down? What really happened to JFK? But my generation has the hardest question of all. Which Disney movie is the best? This question has brought some of the most intellectual minds to a downright standstill. We will write a custom essay sample on Lion King or any similar topic only for you Order Now How can anyone possibly choose one over another? They are all such classic combinations of historical and modern storytelling that it would be a travesty to name one above the rest. However, it needs to be done. I have spent my entire life, nearly two decades, dedicated to deciding this dilemma. The solution may come as a surprise to some, but I am here to declare once and for all that The Lion King is the greatest offspring of The Walt Disney Company. The Lion King is the best Disney movie because of many simple, but integral ingredients that are necessary in the making of any classic children’s movie. Music. Morals. Myth. The Lion King is a classic coming of age tale about a young lion prince and his father the king Mufasa. Simba lives a carefree life until he nefarious Uncle Scar plots murder. After Simba is outcast into the desert his stumbles upon two hilariously quirky friends named Pumbaa and Timon. After many adventurous years in the jungle his childhood friend Nala, finds him and pleads for help. Simba races back, but not before he takes a journey deep into himself with the help of a wise babbling baboon who sings about squashed bananas. The music that was written by Elton John and Tim Rice for the Lion King is some of the most awe-inspiring compositions of the twentieth century. From the heart-wrenching lyrics of â€Å"Can You Feel The Love Tonight† to the energetic beat of â€Å"I Just Cant Wait To Be King,† Elton John manages to bring you right to the precipice of sadness before raising your spirits through the roof. He takes the audience on an emotional rollercoaster using catchy lyrics, witty puns, and philosophical platitudes. The melody is so good it leaves the audience, no matter what age, humming for the rest of the day. The Circle of Life takes the same idea that James Cameron spent 300 million dollars on, that all living things are connected, and explains it in 5 catchy words, â€Å"it’s the circle of life. Another one of their great songs â€Å"I Just Cant Wait to be King,† delves deep into the psyche of a young man (cub) trying to live up to his father’s reputation. He dreams of being the King as far as the eye can see, except the elephant graveyard, of course. This song makes everyone feel happy and spirited w ith clever lyrics and a plethora of visual stimuli. I have never seen anybody not smiling while they watched a giraffe prance about on a hippo’s back. Elton John does a particularly good job with the lyrics of this one. I still remember the feeling of pride I felt when I realized the lyric â€Å"This child is getting wildly out of wing† sung by Zazoo the bird. While this song is good-natured and happy it sends many important messages to the children in the audience. The Lion King has taught me many important lessons, which have shaped me as a person. When the herd of wildebeests tramples Mufasa, it is the most heart-rending, tear jerking, scene I have witnessed since Bambi’s mom dies. However there are many lessons to be gained from Simba’s loss. It shows us the importance of family, how lost a child is when they lose their father. The most important lesson that I learned from the Lion King is put simply, â€Å"Hakuna Matata. † It means no worries, this simple phrase taught me not to dwell on the past no matter what happens. If you miss a shot, go get the rebound. If you fail a test, study more. Do not worry about the past, mistakes can be rectified but thinking about it is useless. Simba fixes his past by listening to Nala and saving Pride Rock. Nala and Simba’s relationship shows how important it is to make friends. That the childhood bonds we all forged know no bounds. Pumbaa and Timon show the audience that goofy friends can step up in the clutch and save the day. Simba’s heroic roar in the faces of Scar and the Eds instills bravery into the hearts and minds of the watchers while simultaneously making everyone laugh at his pitiful attempt. Simba fulfills his obligation by going back to Pride Rock, vanquishing Scar, and bringing the kingdom back to its former glory. This teaches anyone watching about how important it is to do what’s right and to follow your heart. Simba’s journey back home shows the determination and drive needed to do what is right, but that in the end all the sacrifices were worth it to save the ones you love. When Simba crosses over the tree-bridge and becomes an adult it shows children that nothing should hold them back. The tree is a metaphor for how life changes everyone and it is important to embrace these changes. Even through the evidence is clear as day, there are many who disagree with Lion King as number one. Tarzan is a constant competitor with Lion King because of its beautiful soundtrack and romantic story. The fact remains that Lion King has a plot that far outshines Tarzan. Tarzan has some incredible songs in its repertoire but there are also some that sadly disappoint. One thing that can be said about Lion King’s soundtrack is that each song is as interesting and meaningful as the next. From â€Å"I’ve got a Lovely Bunch of Coconuts† to â€Å"The Morning Report,† each song brings its own unique character and input into the final story as a whole. Many people also say that the plot to the Little Mermaid or Aladdin is better. Both movies have hilarious characters and despicable villains, but neither have the finesse with which Lion King deals with major issues, like the loss of a parent or the endangerment of family. The final thing that separates The Lion King from all other movies is its diverse demographic. This movie appeals to everyone. Children love it because of the crazy hijinks Simba, Nala, Pumbaa, and Timon get up to. They also love the catchy music and interesting animals. Parents love it because their children are happy. Parents are also mature enough to pick out the motifs and morals that their families are inadvertently learning. Teenagers love it because Simba’s teenage years correspond closely with many adolescents, his fight with his family and awkward encounter with Nala. The Lion King is the greatest Disney movie ever to grace the big screen. It is no coincidence that The Lion King has 2 Oscars, twenty-six other awards, and twenty-two nominations. Every award has that has been bestowed upon the Lion King is well deserved. The music alone has 2 Golden Globes and 2 Grammy’s. This means that I am not alone in my passion for the Lion King. When all is said and done the votes were counted and Lion King came out on top. Besides it having the best soundtrack ever, the lessons that this movie teaches are unforgettable will hopefully mold the morals of countless generations to come. How to cite Lion King, Essay examples

Friday, December 6, 2019

Lord Of The Flies Vs Alive Essay free essay sample

, Research Paper Lord of the Fliess and Alive! In life we are all faced with state of affairss cheapnesss may be hard to cover with, but for most of us, seeking to last in hostile conditions is non one of them. In the novel The Lord of the Flies and in the film Alive! , seeking to last in hostile conditions was a similar job that the characters had to confront in order to last. We will write a custom essay sample on Lord Of The Flies Vs Alive Essay or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The two scene, characters, and subject of these two plants have many similarities and many differences that cause these characters to respond otherwise towards each other and towards their state of affairs. What the characters did and how they reacted to one another throughout their ordeal proved this. The scene is a major issue that played an of import axial rotation in both of the literary plants. The scene is what helped organize the attitudes of some of the characters, and it was a guideline in what the characters had to make in order to last. In The Lord of the Flies the male childs were stranded in Eden with everything that they needed to last. They were able to play all twenty-four hours all twenty-four hours and non worry about how they were traveling to last, what they were traveling to eat, or even if they were traveling to be rescued. When the male childs lost sight of deliverance the society that had been created crumbled and accordingly they lost the common end that kept the male childs civilized and together. This was a black event because they lost hope and without hope, they became barbarian like. In the movie Alive! the male childs were all stranded in the Andes Mountains and they had to work together in order to last. Through the snowstorms, deficiency of nutrient and the decease of their fellow teammates the male childs banded together with the common end of deliverance and endurance. There was no nutrient so the characters had to fall back to cannibalism in order to last. In our society that is the lowest signifier of savageness, nevertheless the demand for endurance is what drove these male childs to make such unmentionable act. Through the difficult times the male childs worked together, and get the better of the adversities, or died. The rough conditions were what kept the male childs together and in bend kept them alive. The scene of these two plants was similar in the fact that they were stranded with no manner of being rescued on their ain. However, through the characters actions the scene besides set boundaries and limitations on what the male child could and could non make. In some ways, the two narratives had really similar characters. Nando and Jack had many similar features, such as their sense of escapade. They both had a manner of deriving power. At the beginning of the film Alive! Antonio, the rugger # 8217 ; s squad captain, had power over the group because of his leading back at place, in the same manner Ralph was voted head because he was the first one to happen the conch. Nando gained power by maintaining the of hope of acquiring out of the state of affairs that they were in by themselves, hence diminishing fright among the work forces and presenting the thought of cannibalism. Jack was besides concerned with nutrient and throughout the hunting, he gained more power. This besides helped to quiet the boy’s frights. They could kill hogs Jack told the male childs that he could protect them from any beastie that tried to assail them every bit long as he was in charge. These characters reacted in much of the same manner to their state of affairss, and through their actions they related to one another. In both narratives, the subject was the same, get the better ofing adversities in order to last and endurance of the fittest. In The Lord of the Flies, many adversities had to be overcome for the male childs to last. They were immature with no grownups on the island, they had no shelter from the heat, or from the rain and nutrient was at that place but meat was scarce. They overcame the deficiency of grownups through electing leaders and handling them, as they would handle an grownup. They built shelters and set together a runing party to acquire meat. They overcame these obstructions and throughout this, they were able to last and finally be rescued. In the movie Alive! the characters besides had to get the better of some of the same obstructions. They had to hold shelter, maintain warm, and acquire nutrient. They used what was left of the plane as shelter, and huddled together and found all the jumpers to maintain warm and they did the unmentionable act of eating each other to rema in alive. That is genuinely fall backing to whatever it takes to last. Both narratives besides show the subject of endurance of the fittest. In The Lord of the Flies those who were considered weak by Jack were either beaten or killed. So you had to be strong in order to last. In Alive! if you were non strong you would decease from the rough conditions or from hurt that took topographic point upon the clang. Those are the two chief subjects of these narratives. In both plants, the characters faced endurance. In The Lord of the Flies, endurance meant populating with Jack, and his huntsmans, in a really hostile environment. In Alive! the conditions, clime and nutrient were the chief issues that the characters had to cover with on the mountain. Both narratives show and prove that the strongest will last all odds. The Lord of the Fliess and Alive! have many similarities. They are both based on endurance. They show that in order to make your end, which in this instance was deliverance, you had to hold the will, and the chief characters in both of these narratives did hold the will to last. This was proven through the characters actions and how they reacted to one another in their state of affairs. 33c

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Case Scenario Interdepartmental Relations

Table of Contents Introduction The Fortune 500 Company Conflict scenario Solutions to the problems Solution strategies How to avoid the future occurrence of the problem References Introduction Literary, every organization has different departments involved in performance of different activities relating to the organization. These departments are mainly involved in the management, marketing of the company’s product, and production, among others. All these departments must collectively work towards helping in improving the income of the company.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Case Scenario: Interdepartmental Relations specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The organizational culture usually determines how the various departments function to improve the productivity of the company. Moreover, communication and interpersonal relationship between the various members of the departments is therefore a very vital a spect, which determines the success or failure of the company. The Fortune 500 Company The company has been performing considerably well as evidenced by its ranking in the Fortune 500. However, there is a communication breakdown in the company’s various departments. These problems threaten the financial profitability of the company, and they should therefore be averted before they have far-reaching effects on the company. Conflict scenario There is a conflict between the various departments in the organization; for instance, there is a lack of cohesion between various departments involved in the production of products. Each department is trying to outdo the other, and hence show its importance to the company. For example, the sales department looks down upon the manufacturing department and is of the view that the latter department does not understand the needs of the customers of the company. On the other hand, the manufacturing department is of the view that it is not being consulted in the design of the company’s products; the department is of the view that its work is beyond just implementing the ideas that other departments come up with. The finance department on the other hand, puts pressure on the sales department and does not facilitate their working so that they may achieve their set targets. The company also has a problem due to the incompatibility of the goals of the different departments of the organization (Daft, 2009, p. 494). The finance department is mainly concerned with the attainment of the sales targets for the marketing department, whereas the sales department is mainly concerned with the sale of the product, hence making it to have prejudice on the manufacturing department. Problems:Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Competition for recognition between the different departments Lack of teamwork within the departments Laying the blame on other departments Reasons for the problems: Lack of consultation of the relevant departments Lack of teamwork in the company Solutions to the problems Various strategies can assist the company to devise methods for solving the problems. One of the methods is through the enhancement of communication channels of the organization so as to help improve the cohesion between the members of the different departments. The company can also help to improve the teamwork of different departments in the organization by facilitating active participation of various relevant departments, which are involved in the development of the new products for the company. Solution strategies The main problem that the company faces is the conflict between the manufacturing and the marketing department. The problems facing the two departments should first be solved before tackling the differences between the finance and the marketing department. These problems mainly arise due to the lac k of appreciation of the work done by the other departments. The lack of appreciation of the work by the other department is mainly brought about by ignorance of specific department on the work that the other department does. The strategy employed would mainly be to enhance the mutual respect of other departments in the organization. To help in solving the problem, the company should ensure that the departments that are in conflict are in mutual agreement of the strategy, which would be employed to solve the problems they face (Marsen, n.d. p 23). Mutual agreement also helps in creation of a situation where none of the parties perceives itself as the winner and the other as the looser in the conflict. This leads to the creation of a win-win situation for both parties, thus enhancing the productivity of the departments (Rahim, 2001, p. 166). Moreover, mutual agreement will also encourage the active participation of different department in the chosen strategy. The strategy will mainly involve enlightening of members of the departments on the activities undertaken in the other departments. The company should create strategies, which will enable the engineers to have knowledge on marketing, while the marketing department should be given some knowledge of engineering (Tutek and Ay, n.d. p. 549).Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Case Scenario: Interdepartmental Relations specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Knowledge of the other departments will help in reduction of the disagreements between the two groups and in effect, help in solving the problems that the department faces. In addition, the company should ensure that it takes measures to ensure that the marketers receive training on the characteristics of the products and the processes involved in manufacturing of the products. The company should also ensure that the engineers receive training on the needs of the customers and their preferences, as well as the various marketing skills involved in making of the products, which the company specializes in. This will help in solving the differences between the two departments, hence enabling them to speak in a common language (Tutek and Ay, n.d. p. 545). Solution of the problems in the manufacturing and marketing departments will help the company to achieve its target sales, as there would be better coordination of activities involving the marketing and the manufacturing department, hence leading to the satisfaction of the finance department. The strategy used in the solution of the problem between the manufacturing and the marketing department can also be employed in the treatment of problem between the finance and the marketing department. However, the ideal time for the employment of the strategy is after tackling the problem, which faces the manufacturing and marketing department. Tackling of all the problems at the same time, would complicate the problems that the company faces, as it would most likely lead to vilification of the marketing department by the manufacturing and finance department. How to avoid the future occurrence of the problem The company can ensure that the conflicts are avoided in future by facilitating better communication between different departments of the organization. The better communication and mutual respect for the work done by different department should be integrated into the organization culture of the company. In addition, instilling the practices into the organization culture will enable the company to remain true to the above values (CommGAP, n.d. p. 4). The company can instill this into the organizational culture through regular and occasional training of the members of different departments on the activities of other departments. This will enable the members of the different departments to work as a unit for the attainment of the basic objectives of the company. References Communication for Governance and Accounta bility Program (CommGAP). Organizational communication. Web.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Daft, R. L. (2009). Organization theory and design. OH: Cengage learning. Web. Marsen, S.  Organizational Communication. Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan. Web. Rahim M. A. (2001). Managing conflict in organizations. CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. Web. Tutek, H. and Ay, C.  Resolving conflict between marketing and engineering: A quest for effective integration. Celar Bayar University, faculty of Economics and business administration. Web. This report on Case Scenario: Interdepartmental Relations was written and submitted by user Benson L. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Monday, November 25, 2019

Using Tan and Tanto in Spanish Comparisons of Equality

Using 'Tan' and 'Tanto' in Spanish Comparisons of Equality Probably the most common way that Spanish uses to indicate that two people or things are equally a certain way is to use the phrase tan ... como where the ellipsis (three periods) is replaced by an adjective. The phrase is the equivalent of the English phrase as ... as. Examples Diego es tan alto como Pedro. (James is as tall as Peter.)Eres tan inteligente como cualquier hombre. (You are as intelligent as any man.)Cervantes es tan conocido como Shakespeare. (Cervantes is as well known as Shakespeare.)No estoy tan feliz como me gustarà ­a. (I am not as happy as I would like to be.) Such comparisons are known as comparisons of equality. Note how they are both similar to and different than  expressions of inequality, such as Diego es ms alto que Pedro (James is taller than Peter). Comparisons of equality using tan are similar when adverbs are used to indicate the way in which things are done: La cerveza puede afectarle tan rpidamente como el vino. (Beer can affect you as quickly as wine.)Las infopistas transformarn nuestra cultura tan poderosamente como la imprenta de Gutenberg transformà ³ los tiempos medievales. (The information highway will transform our culture as powerfully as Gutenbergs printing press transformed medieval times.) A similar sentence structure is used when a noun is used in the comparison. In such cases, however, a form of tanto, an adjective, is used, and it must agree in number and gender with the noun referred to. (Tan is an adverb.) A few examples: El paà ­s exporta tantos dà ³lares como importa. (The country exports as many dollars as it imports.)La experiencia tiene tanta importancia como el conocimiento de libros. (Experience has as much importance as book knowledge.)Nada tiene tanto à ©xito como à ©l. (Nobody has as much success as he.)No tengo tantas preguntas como antes. (I dont have as many questions as before.) The similar construction of tanto como can also be used to mean as much as. Note that this form of tanto is an invariable adverb; it doesnt change form to agree with words around it: Nadie habà ­a hecho tanto como mi padre. (No one has done as much as my father.)Dormir poco disminuye el rendimiento tanto como el alcohol. (Lack of sleep reduces performance as much as alcohol.)Tienen un lado bueno tanto como uno malo. (They have a good side as much as a bad side.)

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Analysis paper Movie Review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Analysis paper - Movie Review Example There are similarities in Youngdal’s story and what happened between him and Baek-hwa, but there are also differences in how Youngdal and Chung found White Flower, what happened during the journey to the train station, and the ending. As for the visual aspects, the story and the film focused on the environment and how it reflects the diverse forms of attachment and detachment of the three main characters, but the film underlines more the development of friendship and love in its narrative through dialogue and sound. There are similarities in what happened to Youngdal in the story and the film. Both show that he is caught having an affair with a restaurant owner's wife and so he runs away. Youngdal is also suffering from the â€Å"nomad complex† in the text and film. He has a hard time finding that special something that can make him permanently stay in one place. It could be because of lack of economic opportunities though, which the story explores more than the film. I n the story, Youngdal shares with Chung how he separates with Okja, because he lost his job and Okja needs to work in another place. They promised to be together again, but they know that they are young and poor. Love is not enough to fill hungry stomachs. Furthermore, the story illustrates the detachment or sense of loss that workers feel, because of Korea’s rapid industrialization. In an article, Kwon Yong-min says: â€Å"The Road to Sampo sketches Korea in the 1970s well, showing its rapid urbanization and relentless industrialization. It symbolically shows the sense of loss that the â€Å"uprooted† laborers experienced†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Park 90). This sense of loss pervades in all three characters. They may not be wandering aimlessly together, but they share sentiments of uncertainty in their lives. Furthermore, there are differences in how Youngdal and Chung meet Baek-hwa in the story and film. In the film, they meet her at a restaurant in town. In the story, Youngd al and Chung meet her under a pine tree, while she is urinating. It seems that this scene was changed to avoid sexual connotations. Moreover, in the story, Youngdal and Chung did not change their course only to search for Baek-hwa. They are only heading to her direction by chance, because they are trying to catch a train to Gamchun, so that they can take a faster route to Sampo. In the film, they seek out Baek-hwa for the money. The motives are different, but they eventually find Baek-hwa in the story too through coincidence. Furthermore, in the story, Baek-hwa talks a great deal as they walk in the snow. In the film, she and Youngdal converse with each other. Despite not speaking so much in the story, Youngdal and Baek-hwa bonded well, because he had to carry her on his back after Baek-hwa sprained her ankle when she fell in a ditch. The physical actions replace the need for conversation. They do not have to speak to understand that they are similar in many ways, for they are both cold and lonely. In the film, there is much dialogue between Youngdal and Baek-hwa. It seems that they are dating. Dialogue and music play a large role in developing their romantic feelings. Both the film and story employ the environment to describe the characters and their experiences of attachment and detachment. The story often describes the environment in relation to characterization and plot development. For instance, after

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Leadership Analysis Paper (Ray Kroc,Mcdonalds Founder) Essay

Leadership Analysis Paper (Ray Kroc,Mcdonalds Founder) - Essay Example He ensured the growth and consistency of production in the company. Notably, McDonalds is the world's largest chain of restaurants based in San Bernardino, California with its first restaurant starting in 1955. The company continued to open other restaurants all over the world where it sells the same brand and quality of the world’s favorite foods, which include Fries and Chicken, Big Mac sandwich, and Nuggets. Today, McDonalds is the world’s leading foodservice retailer. The leadership case of Ray Kroc relates to me since I also worked for McDonalds and I could use his leadership style in my position. Abstract Leadership is one of the dominant aspects in modern life. There are different forms and levels of leadership and thus it is not easy to define leadership. However, leadership involves the ability to establish a long-term policy and influencing others towards the realization of that policy (Bennis, 2009, p.1-8). Leadership requires leadership skills which are eith er taught or acquired and may have formal powers to exercise their mandate. Notably, leadership is very subtle in any organization and the leaders have unique responsibilities over their followers (Bennis, 2009, 147-149). This paper will analyze the leadership practices of Ray Kroc who was the founder of the McDonalds. In doing this, the paper will rely on theories covered in this course. Chapter 1: Introduction Ray Kroc was an American entrepreneur whose name is very dominant in the restaurants industry because he was synonymous in propelling McDonald’s to international success where it is now the world's largest chain of restaurants. Ray Kroc was born in Oak Park, Illinois, on October 5, 1902 (Mattern, 2011). Ray Kroc grew and spent the greater part of his life in Oak Park, Illinois. He dropped out of school at an early age 15 years to become a Red Cross ambulance driver in World War I after lying about his age to become an ambulance driver at 15 (Mattern, 2011). After the World War 1, Kroc tried various career options, which included selling paper cups, plying piano, and being a DJ on a local Oak Park radio station (Mattern, 2011). At 20 years of age, Kroc got married. He started selling cups during the day for Tulip Cup Company in 1922 and plays the piano on the radio at night. He worked as a sales representative for 17 years where he rose to become the Tulip’s Midwest sales manager (Mattern, 2011). In this position, Kroc acquired the exclusive rights to a new milkshake machine that could make five milkshakes at once and promoted it across the United States (Mattern, 2011). He got big orders for the new milkshake machine and because of the savings he got from the sales, Kroc approached the McDonald brothers to start a number of restaurants. As a result, he opened two restaurants in Illinois when he was fifty-two years old (Mattern, 2011). He consequently bought the McDonald’